2 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES The aim of this presentation is to provide information for inspectors on hazardous substances present in Bakeries;Hazardous substances involved & their effects on employee healthRequirements of the Risk AssessmentOptions for controlling exposureSafety Risks from Bakery Dust
3 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Many substances found in bakeries are hazardous to the health of the workers.The main health risks described for this sector are;Respiratory Illness - including occupational asthmaOccupational Dermatitis
4 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Respiratory Illness / Occupational AsthmaMany substances in the workplace can cause Occupational Asthma (OA).Most common triggers for OA are wood dust, grain dust, fungi, or other chemicals (grain dust 2nd highest cause of OA after isocyanates).Actual rate of occurrence of OA is unknown, it is suspected to cause % of all asthma cases in industrialised nationsBakers / Millers / Grain Handlers are all identified high risk groups
5 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Respiratory Illness / Occupational Asthma1st literature reference to asthma in Bakers from 1700sEvidence of reduced trend for OA frequency overall but flour as causative agent remains static (THOR )Bakers and pastry makers were the most frequently affected worker group reported to the SWORD*Flour is most important causative agent of OA in France / FinlandWork related asthmatic symptoms are usually preceded by rhinitis and conjunctivitis*Surveillance of Work-related Occupational Respiratory Diseases (SWORD) program with annual incidence of 19 per million of working population in 1989–91 and 38 per million of working population in 1992–97 for the UK as a whole.THOR – The Health & Occupational Reporting network – flour / grain exposure responsible for ~ 15% of OA
6 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Occupational DermatitisSkin disorder caused by coming into contact with substances in the workplaceSkin becomes red, itchy and can be blistered2 forms; Irritant Contact Dermatitis (80%)&Allergic Contact Dermatitis (20%)ICD occurs only on parts of body in direct contactACD depends on substance, nature of contact, person exposedOnce sensitised, likely to remain so for lifeSkin Sensitisers – Flour, latex, chromates, nickelIs substance a skin sensitiser?Frequency / duration of contactVulnerability of Host
7 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Occupational DermatitisICD & ACD can occur simultaneously (exposure to irritants and sensitisers)Substances which are skin irritants or sensitisers have Xi on the packagingCPL CLPCorrosive substances can also cause burnsThis is the symbol for an irritant (skin/eye) or a skin or respiratory Sensitiser (old CPL)New CLPThis is the pictogram for skin irritation and serious eye irritation and for skin sensitizationThis pictogram is used for respiratory sensitization
8 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES What should be in the Hazardous Substance Risk Assessment?Establish which hazardous substances are presentIdentify who can be affected, how and likelihood of harmIdentify measures needed to eliminate / control or reduce exposureRecord findings of assessment, required controls and actions taken to implementReview and re-assessThis general approach can apply to all safety and health hazards in the workplace1. Literature review / SDS / Labels – No SDS required for Flour as it is exempt from this requirement under REACH due to the fact that it falls under Reg (EC) No 178/2002
9 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES What are main hazardous substances in the Bakery?- Flour / bakery dusts used in manufacturing process;Liquid ingredients used in manufacturing process;Cleaning agents – hygiene requirements of industrySkin contact through wet work / ingredient handling / equipment maintenance & cleaning
10 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES How may Workers be exposed?- Breathing in flour / bakery dusts, process /cleaning vapoursContact with the skin – solid and liquid ingredients, pastesContact with the eyes – dusts, liquid splashesCan apply to any worker involved in production / maintenance / cleaning operationsIrritant gases from production processes or cleaning agentsSkin contact through wet work / ingredient handling / equipment maintenance & cleaning
11 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Flour Dusts (from cereal and non-cereal grains)Most common raw material used in processIt is an occupational hazard present throughout most of the production process stagesEquipment cleaning & maintenancecan lead to significant exposurepotential
12 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES FLOUR / BAKERY DUSTEffects on the safety of workers- Risks of fire and explosionEffects on the health of workers- eye and skin irritation- dermatitis- respiratory system effects (including asthma)
13 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES FLOUR / BAKERY DUSTRoutes of exposure- inhalation (most relevant)By breathing in flour dust from working environment. Flour dust is listed as respiratory sensitiser – can lead to allergic response - asthma- eye or skin contactThrough contact with flour dust during material handling / cleaning operations. Can also act as skin sensitiser.
14 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES FLOUR / BAKERY DUSTSigns and symptoms of exposureAcute exposure: can result in irritation of the eyes, nasal passage and skinChronic exposure: can result in dermatitis reactions both irritant and allergic, and also asthma as flour dust is a listed respiratory sensitiserExample of conjunctivitis of the eye / irritation of the nasal passages / classic dermatitis on hands
15 HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS FLOUR DUSTEXPOSURE LIMITSEuropean legislationEU Commission SCOEL – does not recommend aniOELV for Flour Dust as none can be identified to protect all workers.- SCOEL concluded that exposures ≤ 1 mg/m3 of inhalable flour dust would protect the majority- However concentrations < 1 mg/m3 may trigger symptoms in already sensitised workersNote: Measured or calculated in relation to a reference period of eight hours.Other referencesEach European country may have established legal or normative OELVs, some based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). These range from 1 – 10 mg/m3 depending on MS.(SCOEL)Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure LimitsiOLEV – indicative Occupational Exposure Limit ValueAs a general rule, SCOEL committee does not recommend health-based occupational exposure limits – OELs - for sensitizers as no threshold can be identified. However, in view of the large number of workers exposed and the relatively large data base, SCOEL recognises that exposures ≤ 1 mg/m3 of inhalable four dust would protect the majority of exposed workers from the on-set of disease and that the envisaged symptoms would be mild. However concentrations < 1 mg/m3 may trigger symptoms in already sensitised workers. As an OEL that protects all workers cannot be identified, health surveillance systems should be routinely applied to bakery and mill environments”
16 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Safety Information on Flour / Bakery DustsNot required to have SDS supplied under REACHUnder Article 2(6) of REACH the provisions of Title IV(dealing with supply chain) does not apply to ‘food of feedingstuffs in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002’Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 applies to all stages of production, processing and distributionFood (or foodstuff) defined as ‘any substance or product, whether processed, partially processed or unprocessed, intended to be ingested by humans’Not required to have hazard label under Article 1(5) of CLP(same as above)Art 1(5) of CLP: CLP Reg shall not apply to subs and mix in the following forms which are in the finishedstate, intended for the final user: (e)) food or feedingstuffs in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 178/2002
17 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Other Respiratory Hazards in Bakery EnvironmentNon-cereal flours: buckwheat, soybean flourEnzymes: amylase, cellulase, xylanase, proteases, glucose oxidaseNuts & seeds : almonds, hazelnuts, sesame seedsFood colourings ; carmine redPowdered ingredients; spices, egg powder, milk powderMoulds: Alternaria, AspergillusHeat, SOx, NOx and other irritant gasesMost of the allergens of cereal grains involved in asthma and rhinitis belong to the albumins and globulins protein fraction of the grain. They are mainly enzymes, stress or defense proteins
18 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Controls for Flour / Bakery Dust (1) What is a Control Measure?A measure taken to reduce exposure to a hazardous substance. Can include; provision of safe system of work, training & supervision, cleaning of workplace, plant, equipment, provision of engineering controls and PPE.Little or no evidence of any level of control present at this tableFocus should be on minimising uncontrolled release at all times
19 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES 10 Top tips to control exposure to flour( courtesy of Health & Safety Executive, UK)Handle flour/powdered products carefully. Minimise the use of dusting flour. Dropping flour from a height or throwing with force will cause dust to be thrown up.Use dredgers or sprinklers to spread dusting flour rather than hand throwingAvoid spillages of flour where possible and where spillages do occur clean up immediately.Take care to avoid raising dust while loading ingredients into mixers.Start up mixers on slow speed until wet and dry ingredients are combined.
20 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES 10 Top tips to control exposure to flour( courtesy of Health & Safety Executive, UK)Avoid damage to ingredients bags.Minimise the creation of airborne dust when folding and disposing of empty bags. One effective method is to roll the bag up from the bottom while tipping avoiding the need to flatten or fold empty bags.Avoid the use of compressed airlines for cleaning.Do not use brushes to dry-sweep. Use high efficiency industrial vacuums fitted with 2 filters (including a HEPA filter) for general cleaningWear a suitable respirator for any essential short-term tasks
21 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Controls for Flour / Bakery Dust (2) Control measures should be appropriate, consistent with the RA and applied in accordance with the Principles of Prevention. Should not increase overall riskControls chosen should be agreed through consultation with workforce and appropriate information and instruction given on proper useWhere dust extraction is fitted, it should be checked to see that it is working every day, checked for damage every week and thoroughly inspected and tested at least every 14 months. Where tight-fitting RPE is worn, face-fit testing should have been done. The RPE should be suitable for the individual wearer. RPE should only be used as a last line of protection to control exposure.Elimination / Substitution / Workplace & process design / Engineering Controls / Collective Measures / PPE as last resortEnclosures / LEV may reduce exposure to dust but could increase explosion risk (ATEX)There are many variations and types of respiratory protective equipment on the market that offer different levels of protection. P2 / P3 masks in general offer protection against flour / bakery dust, however always check their suitability for the specific task undertaken.
22 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Cleaning AgentsTypical chemical cleaners used in bakeriessodium hydroxide (used for cleaning hard surfaces and, in strongerconcentrations, for cleaning ovens);bleach (a mixture of calcium hydroxide and chlorine);other detergents and sanitisers.Hazards associatedIrritants – typically to skinwhere prolonged use during wet workCorrosives – eyes / nose / skin- require greater controlsUsed for cleaning surfaces / floors / equipmentLabels are CPL currently – black on orange. New CLP for danger / warning symbol
23 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Risks from Cleaning Agents Typically irritant in the diluted form (1 in 10 dillution)Corrosives act more harshly on skin and PPE necessaryIrritation occurs primarily to skin – particularly prolonged use when cleaning surfaces / equipmentAlso risk of splashes to eyes / inhalation risk where used in enclosed / restricted places / equipment cleaningMixing of incompatible cleaning agents can liberate toxic gasMixing hydrochloric acid with any alkali based cleaning agent can liberate Chlorine gas
24 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Controls for Cleaning Agents Information Supplymust be appropriately labeled and Safety Data Sheet providedInformation on hazards, correct use, storage, PPE requiredStorageSegregated and safely storedin lockable storeUseFollow recommended concentrations / dilutionsUse suitable PPE for application in tight / restricted areasMixing of incompatible products can result in generation of toxic gasesProcedures for spills / waste disposal / health surveillance
25 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Health SurveillanceRequired by CAD 98/24/EC where appropriate to nature of riskDetermine workers respiratory history pre-employmentInform workers of respiratory / dermatological symptoms to look out for and the reporting mechanisms to be usedReferral to competent medical practitioner where relevant
26 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Safety Risks from Bakery DustsATEX RegulationsATEX Directive 1992/92 apply where flammable substances are stored /usedApplies to flammable liquids or flammable dusts used / generated in processFlour is an flammable dust - when combined with air can result in an explosive atmosphereHazardous Area Classification should be conducted and work areas suitably zoned (20,21, 22) depending on nature of dust and likelihood of presenceSuitably ATEX rated equipment used in these zones & EPD preparedExplosion Protection Document;Technical or organizational measures so as to reduce or prevent the risk of explosions (as set out in Schedule 2) and measures used to mitigate the effects of an explosion.The operation of early warning devices.Training instruction and supervision given to workers who work in places where an explosive or flammable atmosphere may occur.Operational procedures, maintenance, operation of permits to work, and co-ordination between employers.Classified places (according to Schedule 1) where explosions may occur called hazardous zones and detail marking of areas as well as location.Means of escape in the event of an explosion.The properties of substances that present an explosion hazard.Selection and use of suitable equipment for use in hazardous zones including certification and calibration documents.Equipment used that is CE marked and in compliance with S.I. 83 OF 1998 (the ATEX product Regulations).How often the EPD is reviewed and when is it due to be reviewed again.
27 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Safety Risks from Bakery DustsATEX Regulations / Guidance on VacuumsATEX certified vacuum in hazardous area(zones 20, 21 or 22)Do not use domestic vacuumAvoid use of wire reinforced hosesEnsure wet materials are not picked upPeriodically, competent person to inspectmotor for dust and thoroughly cleanChange filters regularly
28 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Recording Risk Assessment Employer required to have suitably documented RA (required under CAD 98/24/EC)Must be kept up to date (reviewed periodically)Must address exposure potential from routine operations and also maintenance activities and non-routine operationsReviewed if health surveillance results show it is requiredReviewed when OELVs are modified / exposure monitoring
29 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Baking industry – Risk Assessment SynopsisHazardous SubstanceExposure OccurrenceHealth riskFlour DustFine dust derived from cereal & non-cereal grainsAll stages of ingredient handlingEquipment cleaning / maintenanceIrritation of the eyes, respiratory tract & skin. As a respiratory sensitiser can cause asthma. Can cause irritant & allergic dermatitisOther Bakery dustsEnzymes , powdered ingredients, spicesRelevant stages of ingredient handlingIrritation of the eyes, respiratory tract & skin. Some are respiratory sensitisers - can cause asthma. Can cause irritant & allergic dermatitisCleaning AgentsCan be irritant / corrosiveArea / equipment cleaning / enclosed spacesIrritation of the eyes, respiratory tract & skin. Irritant dermatitis
30 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Inspection ApproachWritten Risk Assessment in PlaceEvidence of Control measures in place where required under RA & suitably maintained & testedEvidence of Workers informed of risks and trained in use of specified controlsEnforcement should be considered where;- No controls in place / not defined in writing- workers unaware of risks / use of controls- Engineering control measures not maintained / routinely tested- Where unsuitable PPE / RPE supplied
31 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Thank You for your attention!! Any Questions?