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HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES The aim of this presentation is to provide information for inspectors on hazardous substances present in Bakeries; Hazardous.

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Presentation on theme: "HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES The aim of this presentation is to provide information for inspectors on hazardous substances present in Bakeries; Hazardous."— Presentation transcript:


2 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES The aim of this presentation is to provide information for inspectors on hazardous substances present in Bakeries; Hazardous substances involved & their effects on employee health Requirements of the Risk Assessment Options for controlling exposure Safety Risks from Bakery Dust

3 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Many substances found in bakeries are hazardous to the health of the workers. The main health risks described for this sector are; Respiratory Illness - including occupational asthma Occupational Dermatitis

4 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Respiratory Illness / Occupational Asthma Many substances in the workplace can cause Occupational Asthma (OA). Most common triggers for OA are wood dust, grain dust, fungi, or other chemicals (grain dust 2 nd highest cause of OA after isocyanates). Actual rate of occurrence of OA is unknown, it is suspected to cause % of all asthma cases in industrialised nations Bakers / Millers / Grain Handlers are all identified high risk groups

5 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Respiratory Illness / Occupational Asthma 1 st literature reference to asthma in Bakers from 1700s Evidence of reduced trend for OA frequency overall but flour as causative agent remains static (THOR ) Bakers and pastry makers were the most frequently affected worker group reported to the SWORD* Flour is most important causative agent of OA in France / Finland Work related asthmatic symptoms are usually preceded by rhinitis and conjunctivitis

6 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Occupational Dermatitis Skin disorder caused by coming into contact with substances in the workplace Skin becomes red, itchy and can be blistered 2 forms; Irritant Contact Dermatitis (80%)& Allergic Contact Dermatitis (20%) ICD occurs only on parts of body in direct contact ACD depends on substance, nature of contact, person exposed Once sensitised, likely to remain so for life Skin Sensitisers – Flour, latex, chromates, nickel

7 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Occupational Dermatitis ICD & ACD can occur simultaneously (exposure to irritants and sensitisers) Substances which are skin irritants or sensitisers have X i on the packaging CPLCLP Corrosive substances can also cause burns

8 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES 1.Establish which hazardous substances are present 2.Identify who can be affected, how and likelihood of harm 3.Identify measures needed to eliminate / control or reduce exposure 4.Record findings of assessment, required controls and actions taken to implement 5.Review and re-assess This general approach can apply to all safety and health hazards in the workplace What should be in the Hazardous Substance Risk Assessment?

9 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES - Flour / bakery dusts used in manufacturing process; - Liquid ingredients used in manufacturing process; - Cleaning agents – hygiene requirements of industry 1.What are main hazardous substances in the Bakery?

10 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES 2.How may Workers be exposed? - Breathing in flour / bakery dusts, process /cleaning vapours - Contact with the skin – solid and liquid ingredients, pastes - Contact with the eyes – dusts, liquid splashes Can apply to any worker involved in production / maintenance / cleaning operations

11 Most common raw material used in process It is an occupational hazard present throughout most of the production process stages Equipment cleaning & maintenance can lead to significant exposure potential Flour Dusts (from cereal and non-cereal grains) HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES

12 FLOUR / BAKERY DUST Effects on the safety of workers - Risks of fire and explosion Effects on the health of workers - eye and skin irritation - dermatitis - respiratory system effects (including asthma)

13 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES FLOUR / BAKERY DUST Routes of exposure - inhalation (most relevant) By breathing in flour dust from working environment. Flour dust is listed as respiratory sensitiser – can lead to allergic response - asthma - eye or skin contact Through contact with flour dust during material handling / cleaning operations. Can also act as skin sensitiser.

14 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES FLOUR / BAKERY DUST Signs and symptoms of exposure Acute exposure: can result in irritation of the eyes, nasal passage and skin Chronic exposure: can result in dermatitis reactions both irritant and allergic, and also asthma as flour dust is a listed respiratory sensitiser

15 HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS FLOUR DUST EXPOSURE LIMITS European legislation EU Commission SCOEL – does not recommend an iOELV for Flour Dust as none can be identified to protect all workers. - SCOEL concluded that exposures 1 mg/m 3 of inhalable flour dust would protect the majority - However concentrations < 1 mg/m 3 may trigger symptoms in already sensitised workers Note: Measured or calculated in relation to a reference period of eight hours. Other references Each European country may have established legal or normative OELVs, some based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). These range from 1 – 10 mg/m3 depending on MS.

16 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Safety Information on Flour / Bakery Dusts Not required to have SDS supplied under REACH Under Article 2(6) of REACH the provisions of Title IV(dealing with supply chain) does not apply to food of feedingstuffs in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 applies to all stages of production, processing and distribution Food (or foodstuff) defined as any substance or product, whether processed, partially processed or unprocessed, intended to be ingested by humans Not required to have hazard label under Article 1(5) of CLP (same as above)

17 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Other Respiratory Hazards in Bakery Environment Non-cereal flours: buckwheat, soybean flour Enzymes: amylase, cellulase, xylanase, proteases, glucose oxidase Nuts & seeds : almonds, hazelnuts, sesame seeds Food colourings ; carmine red Powdered ingredients; spices, egg powder, milk powder Moulds: Alternaria, Aspergillus Heat, SO x, NO x and other irritant gases

18 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Controls for Flour / Bakery Dust (1) What is a Control Measure? A measure taken to reduce exposure to a hazardous substance. Can include; provision of safe system of work, training & supervision, cleaning of workplace, plant, equipment, provision of engineering controls and PPE. Little or no evidence of any level of control present at this table Focus should be on minimising uncontrolled release at all times

19 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES 10 Top tips to control exposure to flour ( courtesy of Health & Safety Executive, UK) Handle flour/powdered products carefully. Minimise the use of dusting flour. Dropping flour from a height or throwing with force will cause dust to be thrown up. Use dredgers or sprinklers to spread dusting flour rather than hand throwing Avoid spillages of flour where possible and where spillages do occur clean up immediately. Take care to avoid raising dust while loading ingredients into mixers. Start up mixers on slow speed until wet and dry ingredients are combined.

20 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES 10 Top tips to control exposure to flour ( courtesy of Health & Safety Executive, UK) Avoid damage to ingredients bags. Minimise the creation of airborne dust when folding and disposing of empty bags. One effective method is to roll the bag up from the bottom while tipping avoiding the need to flatten or fold empty bags. Avoid the use of compressed airlines for cleaning. Do not use brushes to dry-sweep. Use high efficiency industrial vacuums fitted with 2 filters (including a HEPA filter) for general cleaning Wear a suitable respirator for any essential short-term tasks

21 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Controls for Flour / Bakery Dust (2) Control measures should be appropriate, consistent with the RA and applied in accordance with the Principles of Prevention. Should not increase overall risk Controls chosen should be agreed through consultation with workforce and appropriate information and instruction given on proper use Where dust extraction is fitted, it should be checked to see that it is working every day, checked for damage every week and thoroughly inspected and tested at least every 14 months. Where tight-fitting RPE is worn, face-fit testing should have been done. The RPE should be suitable for the individual wearer. RPE should only be used as a last line of protection to control exposure.

22 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Cleaning Agents Typical chemical cleaners used in bakeries sodium hydroxide (used for cleaning hard surfaces and, in stronger concentrations, for cleaning ovens); bleach (a mixture of calcium hydroxide and chlorine); other detergents and sanitisers. Hazards associated Irritants – typically to skin where prolonged use during wet work Corrosives – eyes / nose / skin - require greater controls

23 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Risks from Cleaning Agents Typically irritant in the diluted form (1 in 10 dillution) Corrosives act more harshly on skin and PPE necessary Irritation occurs primarily to skin – particularly prolonged use when cleaning surfaces / equipment Also risk of splashes to eyes / inhalation risk where used in enclosed / restricted places / equipment cleaning Mixing of incompatible cleaning agents can liberate toxic gas

24 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Controls for Cleaning Agents Information Supply must be appropriately labeled and Safety Data Sheet provided Information on hazards, correct use, storage, PPE required Storage Segregated and safely stored in lockable store Use Follow recommended concentrations / dilutions Use suitable PPE for application in tight / restricted areas Mixing of incompatible products can result in generation of toxic gases Procedures for spills / waste disposal / health surveillance

25 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Health Surveillance Required by CAD 98/24/EC where appropriate to nature of risk Determine workers respiratory history pre-employment Inform workers of respiratory / dermatological symptoms to look out for and the reporting mechanisms to be used Referral to competent medical practitioner where relevant

26 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES ATEX Regulations ATEX Directive 1992/92 apply where flammable substances are stored /used Applies to flammable liquids or flammable dusts used / generated in process Flour is an flammable dust -when combined with air can result in an explosive atmosphere Hazardous Area Classification should be conducted and work areas suitably zoned (20,21, 22) depending on nature of dust and likelihood of presence Suitably ATEX rated equipment used in these zones & EPD prepared Safety Risks from Bakery Dusts

27 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES ATEX Regulations / Guidance on Vacuums ATEX certified vacuum in hazardous area (zones 20, 21 or 22) Do not use domestic vacuum Avoid use of wire reinforced hoses Ensure wet materials are not picked up Periodically, competent person to inspect motor for dust and thoroughly clean Change filters regularly Safety Risks from Bakery Dusts

28 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Recording Risk Assessment Employer required to have suitably documented RA (required under CAD 98/24/EC) Must be kept up to date (reviewed periodically) Must address exposure potential from routine operations and also maintenance activities and non-routine operations Reviewed if health surveillance results show it is required Reviewed when OELVs are modified / exposure monitoring

29 Hazardous SubstanceExposure OccurrenceHealth risk Flour Dust Fine dust derived from cereal & non-cereal grains All stages of ingredient handling Equipment cleaning / maintenance Irritation of the eyes, respiratory tract & skin. As a respiratory sensitiser can cause asthma. Can cause irritant & allergic dermatitis Other Bakery dusts Enzymes, powdered ingredients, spices Relevant stages of ingredient handling Equipment cleaning / maintenance Irritation of the eyes, respiratory tract & skin. Some are respiratory sensitisers - can cause asthma. Can cause irritant & allergic dermatitis Cleaning Agents Can be irritant / corrosiveArea / equipment cleaning / enclosed spaces Irritation of the eyes, respiratory tract & skin. Irritant dermatitis HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Baking industry – Risk Assessment Synopsis

30 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Written Risk Assessment in Place Evidence of Control measures in place where required under RA & suitably maintained & tested Evidence of Workers informed of risks and trained in use of specified controls Enforcement should be considered where; -No controls in place / not defined in writing -workers unaware of risks / use of controls -Engineering control measures not maintained / routinely tested - Where unsuitable PPE / RPE supplied Inspection Approach

31 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN BAKERIES Thank You for your attention!! Any Questions?

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