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Www.oeko.de Social Impacts of Electronics Production and Recycling by Andreas Manhart R07, Davos the 03.-05. September 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.oeko.de Social Impacts of Electronics Production and Recycling by Andreas Manhart R07, Davos the 03.-05. September 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Impacts of Electronics Production and Recycling by Andreas Manhart R07, Davos the September 2007

2 The Electronics Industry: The most globalized industry Brand-name headquarters Mass-assembly locations CPU-fabrications

3 Philippines57.9 % Singapore44.3 % Malaysia42.6 % Taiwan29.9 % China29.7 % South-Korea29.1 % Costa Rica23.9 % Thailand21.7 % Mexico17.7 % Japan16.5 % United States13.9 % Israel13.1 % European Union9.0 % Indonesia7.9 % Morocco6.2 % Turkey4.4 % Vietnam3.7 % Exports of office & telecom equipment in % of the total merchandise exports (Source: WTO International Trade Statistics 2006)

4 Merkel promises help for AMD […] So far the American company manufactured all of their microprocessors in the Saxon capital. The Federal Government and the Province Administration attracted AMD with significant subsidies. With the current extension of the production site by AMD in Dresden, the investment volume climbs to 8 billion US$. With this sum, the AMD-plant is one of the biggest foreign investments into the new German provinces. […] Süddeutsche Zeitung,

5 Süddeutsche Zeitung, A question of business location in Dresden […] In March, Georg Milbradt (German politician) raised alarm: The Saxon chip-production-site is endangered since there are not enough subsidies. […] The investment (by AMD) is endangered because the US State of New York announced far better support than Saxony can ever grant. The offer by New York is said to sum up to half a billion US$. […]

6 The Electronics Industry builds on global value chains It spurred the economic rise of Japan, S-Korea & Taiwan It is regarded as strategic industry worldwide Countries actively compete against each others in attracting investments by the industry.

7 billion US$ trade surplus or 64.2% of Chinas total surplus PR China:

8 Total profits [100 million RMB] Taxes and other charges [100 million RMB] Taxes in percentage of the total industry profits Manufacture of communication equipment, computers and other electronic equipment ,2% Manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps ,3% Manufacture of plastics ,1% Manufacture of textiles ,5% Recycling and disposal of waste ,6% Manufacture of transport equipment ,7% (Source: National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2006) PR China:

9 Between 2.27 and 6.3 million people are employed in the electronics industry in China. (Source: NBSC 2006, ILO 2007) The electronics industry is currently amongst the three most important Chinese manufacturing industries from an employment creation perspective.

10 Electronics ProductionE-waste recycling Taxes paid3.2%0% or 20.6% Contribution to the national economy 10.2% of industrial production 0.12% of industrial production (whole waste sector) Employment2.27 to 6.3 million ~ 700,000 Health & safety risksProblems in the manufacturing of parts Especially severe for 20% of the workforce Freedom of association & right to collective bargaining no Workforce composition & discrimination Young female migrant workers Migrant workers Child labourNo major problem? Monthly wages RMB + bonuses Average: ~ 840 RMB Minimum: ~ 300 RMB Monthly working hours ~ h ~ 240 h Employment securityShort term contractsNo contracts Social insurancesHealth, unemployment, old age pension No insurances PollutionSevere in the production of some electronic parts Specially severe in material recovery and final disposal

11 What about e-waste? Increasing use of ICTs in emerging economies One-laptop-per-child project & donations Under-cover exports to non-OECD-countries China is also a major player Also a global industry

12 Electronics ProductionE-waste recycling Taxes paid3.2%0% or 20.6% Contribution to the national economy 10.2% of industrial production 0.12% of industrial production (whole waste sector) Employment2.27 to 6.3 million ~ 700,000 Health & safety risksProblems in the manufacturing of parts Especially severe for 20% of the workforce Freedom of association & right to collective bargaining no Workforce composition & discrimination Young female migrant workers Migrant workers Child labourNo major problem? Monthly wages RMB + bonuses Average: ~ 840 RMB Minimum: ~ 300 RMB Monthly working hours ~ h ~ 240 h Employment securityShort term contractsNo contracts Social insurancesHealth, unemployment, old age pension No insurances PollutionSevere in the production of some electronic parts Specially severe in material recovery and final disposal

13 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION ! Contact: Andreas Manhart +49 (0)761 –


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