2Quality WHAT IS QUALITY Degree of congruence between expectation and realizationWHO DEFINITIONQuality means meeting the predetermined requirements of users for a particular substance or service
3Quality ControlTesting performed during food or biopharmaceutical manufacturing to verify that appropriate standards of product quality are attainedThe actual organizational group (QC unit) who execute this work
5Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control An overallmanagement plan toguarantee theintegrity of data(The “system”)A series ofanalyticalmeasurements usedto assess thequality of theanalytical data(The “tools”)
6True Value vs. Measured Value The known, accepted value of a quantifiable propertyMeasured ValueThe result of an individual’s measurement of a quantifiable property
7Accuracy vs. Precision Accuracy How well a measurement agrees with an accepted valuePrecisionHow well a series of measurements agree with each other
8Systematic vs. Random Errors Systematic ErrorAvoidable error due to controllable variables in a measurement.Random ErrorsUnavoidable errors that are always present in any measurement. Impossible to eliminate
9Quality Control Measures Standards and CalibrationBlanksRecovery StudiesPrecision and Accuracy StudiesMethod Detection Limits
10Standards and Calibration Prepared vs. Purchased StandardCalibration CurvesInternal StandardsPerformance Testing.
11The concentration of the analyte Calibration CurvesGraphical representation of the relationship between:The concentration of the analyteandThe analytical signal
12Internal Standards A compound chemically similar to the analyte Not expected to be present in the sampleCannot interfere in the analysisAdded to the calibration standards and to the samples in identical amounts.
13Internal Standards Refines the calibration process Analytical signals for calibration standards are compared to those for internal standardsEliminates differences in random and systematic errors between samples and standards
14Performance Testing ? ? ? Blind samples submitted to laboratories Labs must periodically analyze with acceptable results in order to maintain accreditation
16Laboratory Reagent Blanks Contains every reagent used in the analysisIs subjected to all analytical proceduresMust give signal below detection limitMost methods require one with every batch
17Instrument BlankA clean sample (e.g., distilled water) processed through the instrumental steps of the measurement process; used to determine instrument contamination.
18Field Reagent Blanks Prepared in the lab, taken to the field Opened at the sampling site, exposed to sampling equipment, returned to the lab.
19Trip Blanks Prepared in the lab, taken to the field Not opened Returned to the lab
20Recovery StudiesMatrix SpikesLaboratory Control SamplesSurrogates .
21Matrix Spikes Sample spiked with a known amount of analyte Subjected to all sample prep and analytical proceduresDetermines the effect of the matrix on analyte recoveryNormally one per batch
22Laboratory Control Sample Also known as:Laboratory Fortified Blank (LFB)Quality Control Sample (QCS)
23Laboratory Control Sample Analyte spiked into reagent waterSubjected to all sample prep andanalytical procedures
24Surrogates Similar to an internal standard Added to all analytical samples, and to all QC samples to monitor method performance, usually during sample prepMethods often have specific surrogate recovery criteriaMost common in Organic methods
25Method Detection Limit “The minimum concentration of a substance that can be measured and reported with 99% confidence that the analyte concentration is greater than zero”N.J.A.C 7:
26Method Detection Limit MDLs are determined according to 40 CFR, part 136, Appendix BSeven replicate laboratory control samples, analyzed for precisionMultiply standard deviation by 3.14 (Student’s t- value)
27Method Detection Limit Must be performed initially for certificationMust meet criteria specified in methodMust be performed with change in instrumentation or test methodAnnually with ELCP