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Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May 2011 Lefkoşa

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Presentation on theme: "Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May 2011 Lefkoşa"— Presentation transcript:

1 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan Doğan PAŞA Veterinary Department, Head of Serology Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

2 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

3 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan This plan is consisted of 15 sections. These are: 1. Introduction 2. Organisational Structure 3. Definition of The Disease 4. Epidemiology of Small Animals Brucellosis 5. Determination of Control and Eradiaction Strategies 6. Selection of The Strategy 7. Implementation of The Strategy 8. Contribution of Regional/National Economy 9. Budget 10. Economic analysis of The plan 11. Management of The plan 12. Monitoring and Evalauation of The plan 13. Recommendadion 14. Assumptions and risks 15. References Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

4 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan Aim of the Plan The aim of Bovine Brucellosis Control and Eradication Plan is to control and eradication of the infection in the cattle population in Northern Part of Cyprus within five years. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

5 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan Scope of Work Identification of the brucellosis prevalence in cattle, Based on data to be obtained the control and eradication strategy for the disease will be determined, Necessary activities will be implemented to achieve the target in the annual programmes. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

6 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 1.3. Legal Basis Relevant EU and Local Legislations Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

7 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan The livestock Populaton and Farming Structure Number of dairy cattle farm is and number of cattles are heads Table 1 - Number of Cattle in Northern Cyprus ( ) Years Cattle 2004* 47,970 2005 56,647 2006 60,493 2007 57,528 2008 50,928 2009** 50,187 (*): CCA data, (**):2009 VD data Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

8 Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE Bovine brucellosis infection is generally caused by Brucella abortus biotypes . Recently it has been reported that B. melitensis causes infection in the cattle population commingling with sheep and goats in some countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

9 Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE Brucella spp. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

10 Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

11 Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE Status of the Disease in Northern Cyprus Figure – Epidemiolgical data for Northen Cyprus (VD) Yıllar Serum Sayısı Pozitif (%) 2000 18314 1,19 2001 23322 0,77 2002 40296 0,99 2003 42446 0,57 2004 27581 0,34 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

12 Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE Clinical Symptoms (endometritis , necrosis of placenta and may be aborted , orchitis in males ) Pathogenesis (bacteriemia , localization to genital organs and lymph nodes ) B. Abortus and B.Melitensis Immunity ( immunity for brucellosis can obtain by vaccination ) Diagnostic Methods ( isolation and identification of bacteria , **serologically RBPT , CFT , Indirect Elisa , c-Elisa ) Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

13 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES The treatment of bovine brucellosis is strictly prohibited. Where the B.abrotus or B.melitensis prevalence is low, the most appropriate method for eradication is test and culling. However in countries where the prevalence is high, the competent authority will decide to the strategy. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

14 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES Depopulation of Infected Flocks The effective way to eradicate bovine brucellosis is to apply quarantine for infected animals (M+) and animals which have high transmission risk (M1 and M2) should be slaughtered in , registered slaughterhouse. Disease-free (M3 or M4) herds and holdings should be created, and certified accordingly (78/52/EEC) Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

15 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES Identification of Reactors and Culling The golden standard method to diagnose positive animals with active brucellosis is isolation and identification of B. Abortus or B. Melitensis and to confirm with the PCR. As a part of the testing and culling strategy, all animals older than six months old are tested with appropriate serological assays (e.g. RBPT, CFT , Indirect Elisa and c-ELISA). Suspected cases are tested once again in one or two months. Positive animals are culled in no later than one month in registered slaughterhouses. Tissue samples (e.g. lymph nodes) are sent to a microbiology laboratory for bacteriological diagnosis. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

16 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 4. CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES Identification of Reactors and Culling (Cont.) Calves of the reactors are separated from the flock. The flock should be tested regularly intervals (30 to 60 days). The testing and culling process is continued until the flock is found negative in the last two consecutive tests. Negative flocks are monitored through serological tests performed initially once in every six months, and then one in every 12 months (surveillance). Approximately 5 per cent of the infected but seronegative calves may stay seronegative until the later stages of their first pregnancy. Thus, eradication efforts based merely on testing and culling may not be sufficient. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

17 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES Control of the Animal Movements and Quarantine Quarantine measures should be applied immediately when there is a suspected brucellosis case. The quarantine may be partial or total in large holdings in various areas, depending on the flock management and prevalence of the infection. Cattle holdings should take necessary measures to prevent contact with dogs and even birds that can contaminate cattles with contaminated materials. Strict disinfection measures should be applied for isolated animals and whole flock . Suspected and risky animals should be advised to the owners for slaughtering . Declaration of the prohibition of animal movements should be regularly controled will help the eradication efforts. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

18 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 4. CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 4.5. Animal Waste and Side Products Brucella biotypes are sensitive to formalin of 0.03 %, phenol of 1 %, beta propiolactone of 0.01 %, sodium hypochoride, sodium hydroxide, iodines, disinfectants containing quarterner ammonium, ether and chloroform. Necessary amount of disinfectant should be available in the region. Rapid responds should be given to acute brucellosis cases, and disinfection process is performed under the supervision of the official veterinary surgeon. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

19 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 4. CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 4.6. Public Awareness and Media Cattle farmers should be trained through media about brucellosis and its impact on human and animal health with clear examples of suspected animals, discharges, weak calves , aborted featus , placenta and as well as the effects on milk and milk products from these reactor animals. This information should be provided via simple announcements, posters, internet pages, contact telephone numbers, forms, etc., Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

20 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 4. CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 4.7. Vector Control Although transmission via vectors is not important in the epidemiology of brucellosis, it is possible that cats, dogs, foxes, flies and ticks act as mechanical carriers and transmit the disease Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

21 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 8. Establishment of Disease-Free Flocks Healthy flocks should be certificated as Disease-Free Status for the Brucellosis”. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

22 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan EPIDEMIOLOGY 1. Surveillance Studies The following survey studies will be carried out: -Aetiological survey -Serological survey Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

23 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 5. EPIDEMIOLOGY 5.1. Serosurvey Studies Random sampling will be apply in cattle population in the selected villages and flocks. Sample sizes are determined on the basis of 10 % prevalence, 95 % confidence interval, and 1 % error. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

24 Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRATEGY Scenario 1 Vaccination shall not be performed if the flock prevalence is found below 2 % . The eradication efforts shall then include biological safety, disinfection, control of animal movements as well as testing and culling for a duration of five (5) years. A compensation scheme will be developed according the CA decision. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

25 Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRATEGY Scenario 2 If the flock prevalence is found 5 % to 20 % and the individual prevalence is found between 2% and 5%, female young animals (4-6 months) will be vaccinated with S-19 / RB51 vaccine for a period of 3 years. If aetiological survey studies show a existance of B. melitensis agent in infected animal B melitensis Rev.1 vaccine will be used in infected herd. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

26 Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRATEGY Scenario 3 If the flock prevalence is found higher than 20 % and the individual prevalence is higher than 5 %, female young animals (4-6 months) will be vaccinated with S-19 vaccine for a period of five years. If aetiological survey studies show a existance of B. melitensis agent in infected animal B melitensis Rev.1 vaccine will be used in infected herd. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

27 Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
COST / BENEFIT ANALYSIS COSTS Plan A = TL Plan B = TL Plan C= TL Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

28 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan BENEFIT When Plan A is implemented, Estimated cost is TL (within five years for serological surveillance, compensations and fixed costs). Estimated loose when Plan A is not implemented is; TL Cost / Benefit Ratio: TL / = 21,66) = ~ 1:21,5 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

29 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan BENEFIT When Plan B is implemented, Estimated cost is TL (within five years for serological surveillance, compensations and fixed costs). Estimated loose when Plan A is not implemented is; TL 86,986,720. Cost / Benefit Ratio: TL 86,986,720 / = 10,24) = ~ 1:10 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

30 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan BENEFIT When Plan C is implemented, Estimated cost is TL (within five years for serological surveillance, compensations and fixed costs). Estimated loose when Plan A is not implemented is; TL 94, Cost / Benefit Ratio: TL 94, / = 6,47) = ~ 1:6.5 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

31 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan The control and eradication plan should be managed by a technically and scientifically competent “Bovine Brucellosis Plan Implementation Committee” (PIC). 9. MANAGEMENT OF THE PLAN Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

32 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 10. RECOMMENDATIONS 10.1. Training 10.2. Equipment 10.3. Legislation and Implementation Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

33 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 11. ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS 11.1. Assumptions Human Resources Culling / Slaughtering The necessary legal and technical infrastructure should be established for culling a high number of animals in appropriate facilities as a result of the intensive screening. Milk Produced by Suspected Animals (heat treated) There should be necessary legal infrastructure and private sector collaboration to collect the milk from animals in suspected flocks using appropriate methods, and to market after treating with heat. Sufficient and Continuous Financial Resources According to the Animal Health Law The Regulation On Bovine Brucellosis should be accepted by parliament immidiatelly and applied for infected flocks and animals . Animal movements should be prohibited strictly . Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

34 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Bovine Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan Thank you for your attentions and patience . . . Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa


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