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Producing drugs using genetically modified organisms.

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Presentation on theme: "Producing drugs using genetically modified organisms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Producing drugs using genetically modified organisms

2 Genetic Modification Techniques 1. Selective Breeding 2.Genetic Engineering aka. Recombinant DNA technology

3 Genetic Engineering Process 1.Extraction of desired gene from host organism 2.Gene inserted into vector for transportation into new organism

4 Gene Extraction Process 1. Extracting gene from host cell chromosomes 2. Extracting mRNA from host cell

5 Production of Gene From mRNA (human insulin) 1.mRNA coding for insulin production removed from pancreas 2.Complementary DNA (cDNA) strand synthesised (reverse transcriptase) 3.Second DNA strand synthesised on cDNA base (DNA polymerase)

6 GM Microorganisms: Treating Diabetes Using Modified E-Coli 1.Human genes for insulin transferred to mutant form of E-Coli 2.Modified E-Coli cultured in fermenter 3.E-Coli secretes insulin which is extracted and used in treating diabetes

7 GM animals Manipulating genes in eukaryotes is more difficult than in prokaryotes due to: 1.Plasmids cannot be used to introduce new genes 2.Eukaryotes are diploid 3.Transcription of DNA to mRNA more complex 4.Gene expression process less understood

8 Introducing genes into Eukaryotic Cells 1.Injection 2.Bombardment 3.Electroporation

9 Treating emphysema using modified sheep Emphysema is the break down of the inner walls of the alveoli Caused by lack of AAT protein Sheep modified with human AAT genes so that they produce AAT rich milk


11 GM Plants: Vaccines Antigen from animal pathogen added to plant virus surface Plant virus used as vaccine, triggers creation of antibodies against antigen Less associated safety risk as chosen plant virus cannot harm animals


13 Environmental and Ethical Issues of Genetic Engineering

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