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1 UNIVERSITIES AS INTERNATIONAL PLAYERS: THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION Humane Seminar Trieste, 15 th – 16° September 2006 Mobility of researchers:

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Presentation on theme: "1 UNIVERSITIES AS INTERNATIONAL PLAYERS: THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION Humane Seminar Trieste, 15 th – 16° September 2006 Mobility of researchers:"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 UNIVERSITIES AS INTERNATIONAL PLAYERS: THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION Humane Seminar Trieste, 15 th – 16° September 2006 Mobility of researchers: SISSAs experience Giuliana Zotta Vittur - Tatiana Usenich SISSA International School for Advanced Studies – Trieste, Italy

2 2 SISSA training of young graduate students in pure and applied research, also for university teaching career. Founded in 1978, it is focused on two basic missions: promotion and development of culture and scientific top-quality research in the fields of physics, mathematics and neuroscience;

3 3 10 m The Research Sectors Astrophysics Neurobiology High Energy Physics Statistical and Biological Physics Condensed Matter Theory Cognitive Neuroscience Functional Analysis and Applications Mathematical Physics

4 4 Thanks to a small and flexible structure, SISSA is able to continually reshape its teaching and research programmes to meet new scientific challenges and to attract private and public research funds. SISSA

5 5 Number of researchers compared to the labour force USA Average Japan Average European Union Average Italy Average Friuli Venezia Giulia Region* Trieste Number of researchers per 1000 persons in Labour Force 910,15,42,98,837,1 *Data 2004: Department of Economics and Statistical Sciences, University of Trieste Source: Key Figures 2005 on Science, Technology and Innovation – July 2005

6 6 Figures of foreign PhD students enrolled in Italian Universities and in Higher Education Institutions (Scuole Superiori) in the academic year 2004/2005

7 7

8 8MOBILITY IncomingOutgoing

9 9 OUTGOING MOBILITY Former SISSA students have obtained successful positions in the best laboratories and research institutes in the world: USA Massachusetts Institute of Technology University of California at Davis Institute for Advanced Study New Your University School of Medicine University of Chicago Columbia University CBR Instute - Harvard Medical School Stanford University Washington University Tuft University University of California at Berkeley University of Virginia University of California at Riverside Johns Hopkins University Switzerland Ecole Politechnique ITP - Zurich University CERN Basel University Germany Max Planck Institute for Medical Research Humboldt University GWDG - Max Planck Institut Bonn University University of Heidelberg United Kingdom Oxford University Edinburgh University University of Sussex Cambridge University Japan Kyoto University Pop. Rep. China Tsinghua University Sweden Karolinska Institutet France Université Paris V (R. Descartes) Université Toulouse Belgium Université Libre Bruxelles

10 10 INCOMING MOBILITY Foreign students at SISSA

11 11 Students countries of origin in the period 1979/1989

12 12 Students countries of origin in the period 1990/1999

13 13 Students countries of origin in the period 2000/2005

14 14 Students countries of origin in the three periods considered (expressed in percentages) %

15 15 Figures of foreign students at SISSA in the academic year

16 16 Other research positions at SISSA in 2005

17 17 STRATEGIES TO ENCOURAGE INTERNATIONALIZATION AND MOBILITY AT SISSA Strategies at European level Strategies at European level Stategies at national level Stategies at national level Strategies at local level Strategies at local level SISSAs own strategies SISSAs own strategies

18 18 Strategies at European level Participation in the Research and Cooperation Programmes of the European Commission Participation in the Research and Cooperation Programmes of the European Commission Marie Curie Actions Marie Curie Actions Early Stage Researchers Early Stage Researchers Research Training Networks Research Training Networks Intra-European Fellowships (for researchers from EU and Associated States with at least 4 years experience ) Intra-European Fellowships (for researchers from EU and Associated States with at least 4 years experience ) Incoming International Fellowships (for experienced researchers coming from outside the EU and Associated States) Incoming International Fellowships (for experienced researchers coming from outside the EU and Associated States) Transfer of Knowledge Fellowships (for experienced researchers with more than 10 years research experience Transfer of Knowledge Fellowships (for experienced researchers with more than 10 years research experience Reintegration Grants (for researchers who have been awarded a 2-year Marie Curie fellowship in another European country) Reintegration Grants (for researchers who have been awarded a 2-year Marie Curie fellowship in another European country)

19 19 Strategies at national level Direct call of eminent scientists Programme (Chiamata per chiara fama) Direct call of eminent scientists Programme (Chiamata per chiara fama) Brain gain Programme (Rientro dei cervelli) Brain gain Programme (Rientro dei cervelli) Mobility fellowships Mobility fellowships Fiscal incentives which encourage re-entry in Italy of researchers Fiscal incentives which encourage re-entry in Italy of researchers

20 20 Strategies at local level The International Fellowship Programme Talents The International Fellowship Programme Talents D4 Programme D4 Programme The Central European Initiative (CEI) recognized SISSA as one of its centres of excellence The Central European Initiative (CEI) recognized SISSA as one of its centres of excellence Close collaboration with the ICTP (International Centre of Theoretical Physics) Close collaboration with the ICTP (International Centre of Theoretical Physics)

21 21 SISSAs own strategies Maintaining the high level of the international recognition of its teaching and research activities Maintaining the high level of the international recognition of its teaching and research activities Dynamism in research and interdisciplinarity Dynamism in research and interdisciplinarity Use of international criteria in recruitment Use of international criteria in recruitment Presence of a significant number of foreign academics in the staff Presence of a significant number of foreign academics in the staff Promotion of inter-university cooperation agreements and international joint degrees Promotion of inter-university cooperation agreements and international joint degrees Spring preselection Spring preselection Practical assistance offered to researchers Practical assistance offered to researchers English as the working language of the School English as the working language of the School

22 22 OBSTACLES TO OVERCOME Citizens of third countries need an entry visa for Italy Visa for study Visa for work Students, fellowship holders Research assignments, work contracts Family reunion The European Commission proposed the creation of the SCIENTIFIC VISA (Optional)

23 23 OBSTACLES TO OVERCOME linguistic problems linguistic problems legal and administrative barriers to enter the country (visas and residence permits) legal and administrative barriers to enter the country (visas and residence permits) academic career (problems in recognition of periods of studying and working abroad) academic career (problems in recognition of periods of studying and working abroad) lack of career prospects lack of career prospects salary disparities salary disparities transfer of pension rights transfer of pension rights financial obstacles financial obstacles different taxation rules different taxation rules lack of information (both on procedures and on opportunities) lack of information (both on procedures and on opportunities) inadequate facilities and support services inadequate facilities and support services

24 24 HOW TO STIMULATE MOBILITY? The ambitious challenges of the European Union can be summarized in the following three political milestones: The launching of the European Research Area (ERA) in January 2000; The launching of the European Research Area (ERA) in January 2000; The commitment by the Heads of State and Governments, undertaken in Lisbon in March 2000, to turn Europe into the most dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy by the year 2010; The commitment by the Heads of State and Governments, undertaken in Lisbon in March 2000, to turn Europe into the most dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy by the year 2010; The commitment by the European Council of Barcelona (March 2002) to increase investments in research up to an average of 3% of the Member States GDP. The commitment by the European Council of Barcelona (March 2002) to increase investments in research up to an average of 3% of the Member States GDP.

25 25 CURRENT TOOLS……. CURRENT TOOLS……. New strategies, policies and conditions are required so as to make Europe more attractive for researchers: New strategies, policies and conditions are required so as to make Europe more attractive for researchers: The 7th European Framework Programme (Focus on People: To develop and strengthen the human potential of European research through support to training, mobility and the development of….research careers. The 7th European Framework Programme (Focus on People: To develop and strengthen the human potential of European research through support to training, mobility and the development of….research careers. The European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for recruitment The European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for recruitment

26 26 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION


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