Presentation on theme: "The Federalists in Charge"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Federalists in Charge Chapter 9, Section 3The Federalists in Charge
2 Key TermsForeign policy – relations with the governments of other countriesPolitical party – a group of people that tries to promote its ideas and influence government, and also backs candidates for officeXYZ Affair – a 1797 incident in which French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. diplomatsAlien and Sedition Acts – a series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants to the United StatesStates’ rights – theory that said that states had the right to judge when the federal government had passed an unconstitutional law
3 Bell RingerThese questions focus on Washington’s opposition to political parties.1. Read the quote from Washington’s Farewell address. What did he mean by the “baneful effects of the spirit of party?”“Let me now…warn you…against the [harmful] effects of the spirit of party…This spirit, unfortunately…exists in different shapes in all governments…but in those of the popular form, it is seen in its greatest rankness and is truly their worst enemy.” George Washington, Farewell Address2. Why might Washington’s advice to avoid political parties be hard to follow?
4 Terms and People faction – an organized political group James Madison – supported Thomas Jefferson’s Republican viewsThomas Jefferson – Republican candidate for President in 1796 and the nation’s second Vice PresidentAlexander Hamilton – Washington’s Secretary of the Treasury; supported Federalist ideasJohn Adams – Federalist candidate for President in 1796 and the nation’s second President
5 Explain how early political parties emerged. ObjectivesExplain how early political parties emerged.Compare the political views of the Republicans and the Federalists.Discuss the result of the election of
6 In 1796, Washington published his Farewell Address to fellow Americans. Washington made two main points:He feared that political divisions would tear the nation apart.He believed that the United States should not become involved in European affairs.
7 Washington took pride in his accomplishments. America had a functioning federal government.The economy was improving.He had avoided war.The Northwest Territory was free from British troops and safe to settle.
8 How did two political parties emerge? Early political groups were called factions. They were widely thought to be selfish groups.Washington and others feared that factions would be destructive to the new government.
9 Washington Retires Washington spent 8 years in office 1. What advice did Washington give the nation on foreign affairs?To remain neutral and avoid alliances2. Over what issues did political parties develop?How the nation should be runHow to interpret the ConstitutionEconomic policy
10 Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury By the 1790s, Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton were quarreling and growing apart.Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the TreasuryThomas Jefferson, Secretary of State
11 Jefferson’s and Hamilton’s differences led to the development of the first political parties. Republicans supported Thomas Jefferson and his ally, James Madison.Federalists supported Alexander Hamilton and his ideas.
12 The Democratic-Republicans wanted to keep most power at the state or local level. Federal governmentStatesThey feared that a strong central government would act like a monarchy.
13 The Federalists said that the United States needed a strong federal government. They believed the federal government would hold the country together and deal with its problems.States
14 The two parties also had geographic differences. Federalists were strong among Northern merchants.Republicans were supported largely by Southern farmers.
15 Federalists and Republicans disagreed about many issues. Were led by Thomas JeffersonWere led by Alexander HamiltonBelieved people should have political powerBelieved wealthy and educated should leadFavored strong state governmentFavored strong central governmentEmphasized agricultureEmphasized manufacturing, shipping, and tradeFavored strict interpretation of ConstitutionFavored loose interpretation of ConstitutionWere pro-FrenchWere pro-BritishOpposed national bankFavored national bankOpposed protective tariffFavored protective tariff
16 Growth of Political Parties 3. Who were the leaders and the major groups that supported each party?Jefferson & Madison (Democratic-Republican party)Farmers and workersHamilton (Federalist party)Northern merchants and manufacturers4. What were the major beliefs of each party?Democratic-Republican – democracy and republican system; saw a nation of rural planters and farmersFederalist – strong central government; emphasis on trade, manufacturing, and cities
17 In 1796, Washington said he would not seek a third term In 1796, Washington said he would not seek a third term. There would be an election.Why was the election of 1796 different from the previous election?Both political parties nominated a candidate.Republican CandidateThomas JeffersonFederalist CandidateJohn Adams
18 In 1796, the President and Vice President were not elected together, as they are today. The candidate with the most votes became President.The second-place candidate became Vice President.
19 Adams finished first and Jefferson finished second Adams finished first and Jefferson finished second. The nation gained a Federalist President and a Republican Vice President.John Adams#1Thomas Jefferson#2This led to serious tensions during the next four years.
20 John Adams Takes Office 5. Why was the election of 1796 different from the previous election?Political parties competed6. How did Thomas Jefferson, Adams’ rival for president, become his vice president?The Constitution said the runner-up should be vice president.Jefferson received 68 electoral votes, Adams had 71John Adams became the first president to reside in D.C.
21 Problems with France Relations with France were still tense Britain and France were still engaged in warFrance didn’t want the U.S. trading with BritainStarted seizing American merchant shipsAdams did not want war, sent representatives to ParisCharles Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, John MarshallThey tried to meet with the French minister, but were ignored
22 In 1797, Adams sent a mission to France In 1797, Adams sent a mission to France. This led to a scandal known as the XYZ Affair.French agents demanded that the U.S. pay them a large bribe.bribe $$The Americans refused. The French agents were anonymously known as X, Y, and Z.
23 XYZ Affair 7. What caused the XYZ Affair? France was seizing U.S. ships, Adams sent reps to talksThree French men – X, Y, Z – told the Americans the minister would talkBut…Only if the Americans agreed toLoan $10 million to FrancePay a $250,000 bribe to the minister
24 XYZ Affair8. How did the XYZ Affair show the young nation’s growing confidence?The nation was willing to defy French power and to build up its strengthHow did the XYZ Affair affect U.S. relations with France?U.S. started seizing French ships and cancelled its treaties (1798)
25 The XYZ Affair caused war fever in America. Adams asked Congress to increase the size of the army and rebuild the navy.From 1798–1800, the United States fought an undeclared naval war with France.
26 In 1798, war fever drove Federalists to pass laws to destroy their political opponents. aliensRepublicansThe Alien Act was directed at aliens, such as immigrants.The Sedition Act targeted Republicans.
27 The Alien and Sedition Acts Democratic-Republicans and Federalists disagreed over the conflict with France – traded barbs in newspapers9. Why did Congress pass the Alien and Sedition Acts?To punish and silence their critics (immigrants)Congress was Federalist majority
28 Alien ActIncreased the duration, from 5 to 14 years, that a person had to live in the U.S. to become a citizen.Gave the President power to deport or imprison any alien considered dangerous.
29 Sedition ActThe harshest law limiting free speech ever passed in the U.S.Made it a crime for anyone to write or say anything insulting or false about the President, Congress, or the government.
30 Alien and Sedition Acts Naturalization – the time to become a citizen increased from 5 years to 14 yearsGave the President the power to arrest disloyal aliens (immigrants)Gave the President the power to order aliens out of the country during time of warOutlawed sedition – saying to writing anything false or harmful about the government
31 Arguments for State’s Rights Arguments for Federal Power Passage of the Alien and Sedition acts renewed the debate over federal versus state power.Arguments for State’s RightsArguments for Federal PowerThe federal government derives its power from rights given to it by the states.Because the states created the United States, individual states have the power to nullify a federal law.The federal government derives its power from rights given to it by the American people.States have no power to nullify federal laws.States cannot revoke federal powers set forth in the Constitution.
32 Republicans fought the Alien and Sedition acts. Kentucky and Virginia passed resolutions that declared the acts unconstitutional. These state resolutions had little immediate impact, but the Alien and Sedition acts did not last long.The Sedition Act expired in 1801.The waiting period to become a citizen was restored to 5 years in 1802.
33 The resolutions also boosted the idea of states’ rights. The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were far more important than the laws that provoked them.They claimed that states could nullify a law passed by Congress.The resolutions also boosted the idea of states’ rights.
34 The Alien and Sedition Acts, continued 10. How were immigrants and members of the press affected by these acts?Charged with expressing opinions damaging to the government or president11. How did the Democratic-Republicans use the theory of states’ rights to fight the Alien and Sedition Acts?To deem the Acts unconstitutional12. How did Kentucky and Virginia support the Democratic-Republicans’ position?Passed resolutions that declared the Acts unconstitutional
35 Adams opposed a full-scale war with France. He sent a new mission to France to meet with dictator Napoleon Bonaparte.In 1800, Napoleon agreed to stop seizing American ships. Adams had avoided war.
36 Peace with France13. How did Adams settle the conflict between the United States and France?Held peace talksThey reached a deal – both sides would end all naval attacksConvention of 1800“Here lies John Adams, who took upon himself the responsibility of the peace with France in the year 1800.”
37 Chapter 9 ReviewAbigail Adams was not only a brilliant woman in her own right, but she also furthered the career of her husband, John.She was the first woman in history to be the wife of one President and the mother of another, John Quincy (Barbara Bush being the second, wife of George Bush and mother of George W. Bush). (The White House Historical Association.)