Presentation on theme: "1.INTERPERSONAL ROLES:- It contains of following:- FIGURE HEAD:- Executive managers performing a number of ceremonial duties such as representing their."— Presentation transcript:
1.INTERPERSONAL ROLES:- It contains of following:- FIGURE HEAD:- Executive managers performing a number of ceremonial duties such as representing their firm at public affairs. Lower level managers have ceremonial duties as well but on lesser scale like attending employees weddings & greeting visitors. LEADER:- The managers help in motivating workers, guiding work–related behavior & encouraging activities that help to achieve organizational objectives. 2. INFORMATIONAL ROLES:- These roles are concerned with communication among individuals & groups. Managers should be good communicator so that they can communicate the right information & decision. It contains of following:- MONITOR:- Managers monitor activities, gather data in the meeting & observe the behavior. Well-informed managers are prepared for decision making & can redirect behavior to improve organizational performance. SPOKESPERSON:- Top executives find themselves more involved spokespersons than lower level managers. A firm’s policy on competition & its commitment to safety are the main topics which is common in executive speeches. Managers at all levels are spokespersons who maybe called upon to represent their groups. For example, when department heads meet to discuss operating budgets, they must be prepared to present information & support budget requests of their respective departments.
3. DECISIONAL ROLES:- It contains of the following:- ENTREPRENEUR:- In recent years entrepreneurs have been identified with a commitment to innovation. Managers in complex organizations act entrepreneurial way, by constantly trying to improve their operations. They seek new ways of using resources, new technologies for enhanced performance & new systems of organizing human resources. DISTURBANCE HANDLER:- This is the best understood role of managers because they have always had the primary responsibility for resolving problems. It may also be the most stressful role as managers to find themselves regularly facing disturbances that threaten the harmony & effectiveness of their organization. RESOURCE ALLOCATOR:- This role links planning & organizing functions. Managers must plan to meet their objectives & distribute resources. There will never be sufficient time, money, materials or manpower to fulfill all that is expected, so resource allocation often involves carefully assigning scarce resources. NEGOTIATION:- In this we will learn how negotiation is done & the role of negotiator. However, negotiating extends to many managerial activities both inside & outside the firm. Purchase manager, for example negotiates material prices & terms. Personnel manager negotiates union contracts. Negotiation, of course, does & mean “CONFLICT” but it does imply face to face bargaining between managers & employees to resolve problems. The duty of a negotiator is to work out an agreement with customers, suppliers & agencies.
RECONCILATION OF MANAGERIAL ROLES & FUNCTIONS:- The roles & functional approaches are two sides of the same coin. They are two different approaches but related ways of analyzing the job of a manager. Following is the relationship between both the approaches:- MANAGERIAL ROLES MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS Interpersonal Roles Planning Informational Roles Organizing Decisional Roles Staffing Directing Controlling While planning, managers play informational & decisional roles. They receive, store & monitor. They also take policy & operative decisions. In organizing, managers play interpersonal & decisional roles. They establish relationships between activities & people take decisions about utilization of resources. In staffing, managers play decisional, informational & interpersonal roles. They determine human resources requirements, select & train people & maintain personnel records. In directing, managers play interpersonal, informational & decisional roles. They motivate the people by providing various incentives & guide them through communication process. Controlling involves mainly of informational & decisional roles. Managers obtain information of results, compare them with the standards & take corrective actions which involves decision making.
PLANNING TYPES & PROCESSES DEFINITON OF PLANNING:- What is planning? Planning is a primary function of management. It means deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it & who is to do it. Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve the desired results. It involves anticipation of future courses of events & choosing the best course of action. Thus, it is a process of thinking before doing anything. Planning leads to the determination of objectives of the group activity & the steps necessary to achieve them. We can say that planning is a systematic attempt to decide a particular course of action for the future.
NATURE OF PLANNING:- The nature of planning can be understood by following characteristics of planning:- 1.BASED ON OBJECTIVES:- Planning is closely associated with the objectives of the organization. It lays down the actions that will lead towards the ultimate objectives. 2.FORWARD LOOKING:- Planning is always concerned with looking into the future. It involves forecasting of future environment in which the organization is expected to function. 3.SELECTION OF ALTERNATIVES:- Planning is concerned with selecting the best course of action from the given alternatives. Decision making is an important part of the planning function of management. 4.EFFECTIVENESS OF PLANNING:- The planning function should be conducted efficiently & effectively. The efficiency & effectiveness of planning is measured by its contribution in achieving organizational objectives Vs its corresponding costs. In other words, plans should be developed after due consideration of potential benefits to be received Vs costs incurred.
ADVANTAGES OF PLANNING:- Following are the advantages of planning:- 1. REDUCTION OF UNCERTAINTIES:- Future is always full of uncertainties. A business organization has to function in these uncertainties. It can operate successfully if it is able to predict the uncertainties. Some of these uncertainties can be predicted by undertaking systematic forecasting. Planning helps in foreseeing uncertainties which may be caused by changes in technology & government rules & regulations. 2. CONCENTRATING ON OBJECTIVES:- It is a basic characteristic of planning that it is related to the organizational objectives. All the operations are planned to achieve the organizational objectives. Planning facilitates the achievement of objectives by focusing attention on them. 3. CO – ORDINATION:- Good plans help to work together on inter- departmental activity. Various departments work in accordance with overall plans of the organization. Thus, there is harmony in the organization & duplication of efforts & conflicts or fights do not take place due to co- ordination in the departments.
4. ECONOMY IN OPERATION:- Planning ensures economical operations because of emphasis is on efficiency. Since planning involves selection of the best possible action, it helps to achieve the best results by using less cost. 5. FACILIATION OF CONTROL:- Planning & control cannot be separated from each other. Planning helps control by furnishing standards of performance. 6. ENCOURAGEMENT OF INNOVATION:- Planning helps in innovative & creative thinking among the managers because many new ideas come to the mind of a manager when he/she is planning. It creates a positive attitude among the managers. 7. INCREASE IN COMPETITIVE STRENGTH:- Effective planning helps one enterprise to compete with other enterprise which do not have planning or have ineffective planning. This is because planning may involve expansion of capacity, changes in work methods or ways, changes in quality & technological changes.