Presentation on theme: "Labor Working long hours in factories with low pay and with often very unsafe and unsanitary conditions eventually led workers to organize unions. "— Presentation transcript:
Labor Working long hours in factories with low pay and with often very unsafe and unsanitary conditions eventually led workers to organize unions. A union is a group of workers who come together and want better conditions, higher pay, and better hours. The most common way they protest against their working environment is to go on strike—in which the workers refuse to work—and the way they negotiate and stay together is called collective bargaining
Labor Unions Knights of Labor the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s. Its most important leader was Terence V. Powderly. The Knights promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman Demanded the 8 hour work day Powderly
Labor Unions American Federation of Labor founded in Columbus, Ohio in May 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, Samuel Gompers vigorously opposed unrestricted immigration from Europe for moral, cultural, and racial reasons. Gompers
Strikes Industry and government saw strikes as a threat to the capitalist system. When workers went on strike, the strikes could often turn violent and the government almost always backed business, sending in federal troops to end the strikes or courts issuing injunctions to stop them
Strikes Haymarket Strike: May 4, 1886, Chicago. People gathered to protest police brutality in an earlier protest. A bomb goes off killing several policemen and several people in the crowd were shot and killed. Homestead Strike: 1892, Workers strike against wage cuts at the Carnegie Steel Company in Homestead, PA. The strike turns violent and lasted for months but was eventually called off by the union.
Strikes Pullman Company Strike: 1894, the Pullman Railroad Car Company laid off workers and cut salaries without lowering the cost of company housing American Railway Union (ARU) leader Eugene V. Debbs wanted arbitration (union and company owner negotiate) by Pullman refused. ARU called for a boycott of all Pullman rail cars, but President Cleveland sent in federal troops to stop the strike