Presentation on theme: "IFAT 2010 Josef Barth, European Compost Network ECN Biowaste in the Context of EU Legislation - The Need and Approaches for Realisation."— Presentation transcript:
IFAT 2010 Josef Barth, European Compost Network ECN Biowaste in the Context of EU Legislation - The Need and Approaches for Realisation
IFAT 2010 About the European Compost Network ECN European Reference Point on Exchange of Knowledge Exchange of Experience Circulation of Information Common Strategies European Standards Mech.Biol. Treatm. Quality & Markets Composting Separate Collection Anaerobic Digestion Sustainable solutions for the organic residues stream
IFAT 2010 Potential of organic waste in EU27: 115 M tonnes / year Recycling in 2008: 15 M tonnes biowaste 11 M tonnes green waste 4.5 M tonnes digested = 15 M tonnes compost With separate collection composting/digestion In implementation In preparation only few actions Italy 3,5 M tonnes 240 sites UK 220 sites 3 M tonnes Austria 300 compost + 400 AD sites - 1,3 M tonnes NL 70 sites 3,2 M t. Only 1/4 of the potential - still a long way to go DE 800 sites 10 M tonnes +4500 sites for digestion
IFAT 2010 Organics Recycling by Composting in Europe (2009) Degradation of separately collected organic wastes of housholds, gardens, parks and commerce Ca. 2000 sites of which 40 % treat only green waste Annual capacity -> 22 Mio. t Additionally around 800 small agricultural co-composting plants mainly in Germany and Austria Large potential for agricultural composting in accession countries and Austria, Scandinavia, Ireland, Spain and Portugal Target: Manufacturing of a PRODUCT for fertilisation, soil improvement and humus management.
IFAT 2010 Green/Garden Waste Composting Greenwaste composting in open windrows is state of the art in all European countries with very differing approaches from 200 t/y small scale up to 70.000 t/y high specialised composting companies producing high price growing media, potting soils with peat replacement It is the main composting type for source separated organics in Finland, Denmark, UK, Irland and France Examples of treatment capacities: - 3,0 mio t Germany - 1,7 mio t Netherlands, - 1,0 mio t France - 0,4 mio t in Sweden and - 0,4 mio t in Belgium (Flanders)
IFAT 2010 Energy and Compost in Combination 3 grain sizes in one screening to separate the wooden part as biomass for energy Partial stream digestion or enlargement of existing compost plants with a digestion step
IFAT 2010 Status Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Residues & Feedstocks in EU (2009) Target: Production of biofuels (Sweden, Switzerland), renewable energy and and organic fertilisers. 100 large AD sites with 4,5 million tons capacity for organic waste - post composting recommanded Additionally 5000 agricultural digestion and co-digestion sites (mainly Germany, Austria) for organic waste, agricultural residues and energy crops)
IFAT 2010 Use of Biogas/Biomethane 80 % in Europe in decentral combined heat and power CHP units with an increasing external use of the heat. Power generated is mostly sold to public grid as "green energy" < 20 % biogas upgrading to biomethane mainly Sweden and Switzerland and Austria) as fuel replacing fossil natural gas.
IFAT 2010 Status of MBT and MSW Composting/AD (2009) -> Treatment of residual waste without or after separate collection by composting or digestion mostly to stabilise it before landfilling 280 plants - 18 million t/year = ? 3 million t compost mainly in Italy, Germany, Austria (France, Spain) Target: Production of organic material (WASTE!) which can be used in restricted areas (= Mixed Waste Compost MSWC) or with very low organic matter content which is suitable for landfilling (= Stabilised Biowaste SBW or SOF or CLO) Composting Anaerobic Digestion
IFAT 2010 Use of recycled organics on soils in EU Organics in residual waste Biological Treatment - Composting or Digestion Mixed municipal solid waste Sep. collected Organics Stabilised organics Waste compost Product for the market Restricted application Controlled application Good practice application
IFAT 2010 The Role of Bioenergy (Wood, Wooden Residues, Biogas, Organic Waste) Source: DBFZ according to Eurostat Natural gas 23,9% Mineral oil 36,4% Coal 16,3% Nuclear power 13,4% Renewable Energy 7,8% Bioenergy ca. 70 % Geothermal Energy Solar Energy Wind Power Water Power Bioenergy production in 2007 4000 PJ/y = ca. 25 % of the potential Structure of the primary energy consumption in the EU27 in 2007 (ca. 75.600 PJ/a) EU-Directive for renewable Energy (EU RED) - Increase of the renewable energy portion up to 20 % in 2020 - Increase of the biofuel portion in fuel up to 10 %
IFAT 2010 Future challenge: When to do what with the biomass ? Composting Anaerobic Digestion Biomass for Energy Germany: 10 mio. t of organic waste from households, gardens- + parks Ca. 8.0 mio. tons Composting (biowaste, garden- & park waste) Ca. 1.0 mio tons Anaerobic digestion (wet biowaste, catering waste, grease trap) Ca. 1.0 mio. tons Biomass incineration (Garden & park residues, residual wood) Where are the overlapping areas? Where are the borderlines of the options Source: Dr. B. Kehres BGK, 2007
IFAT 2010 Why Increase of Biowaste Recycling in Europe? Key policy drivers in Europe EC Landfill Directive which requires up to 65% diversion of organics in waste from landfilling EC Soil Protection Strategy/Soil Biodiversty EC Climate Change Programme EU Renewable Energy/Biomass Targets Additional drivers - Recycling of valuable resources e.g. Plant nutrients (Phosphorus!!!, Nitrogen) and organic matter for soils) - Peat replacement - Cost savings delivered by waste/landfill taxes
IFAT 2010 45 % of the European Soils are Poor/low in Humus EU Soil Thematic Strategy Communication says: "Compost is the best source for humus/ organicmatter production" = LOW
IFAT 2010 Potential Offered by Optimisation of Bio- waste Management & Possible Benefits CO 2 savings potential – 10 - 50 Mt of CO 2 (including prevention) Soil improvement potential – between 3 - 7% of agricultural soils could be improved Potential for renewable energy – maximum 7% of 2020 target if maximized energy production at cost of recycling Potential to meet biofuel production targets = 42 % - if the bio-waste is subject to anaerobic digestion and biogas is used as biofuel Recycling of resources – Nutrients P & N and organic matter. Phosphor reserves only for 70 years! Landfill Directive diversion targets – Remove of organics before landfilling (65 % until 2016!) Source: European Commission DG Env.
IFAT 2010 Approach for Needed Changes Rethinking is needed in policy, in economy, in commerce and public towards: ORGANIC RESOURCES MANAGEMENT! Sustainable and effective management of our resources in closed loops will become the key factor for the future. But: European Commission, DG Environment concluded in May 2010 as result of 2 years scientific evaluation in an Impact Assessment on the need of bio-waste legislation: "no policy gaps that PREVENT Member States from taking appropriate actions …" and therefore "no need to promote biowaste recycling through a European legal instrument". Question: Does this conclusion reflect common practice and successful developments in the European waste sector???
IFAT 2010 So, what do we need to realise the biowaste recycling benefits? A PUSH and PULL approach
IFAT 2010 Market Pull Compost & digestate marketing is confidence marketing Range of value added products Marketed to various sectors Achieving customer confidence Standardised high quality product Independently controlled Clean source material Status: Confidence of both private and professional customers requires SEPARATE COLLECTION
IFAT 2010 Market Requires Best Qualities Experiences of European compost producers: + Separate collection of organic waste Clean source = Quality Assurance = External!! control Quality Compost & digestate fit for use Product status
IFAT 2010 Regulatory Push Binding targets drive the recycling sectors E.g. targets in the Landfill Directive (!!), Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive and renewable energy sources in RES-Directive Only targets and legislation have led to investment in infrastructure and changes in practices Regulatory bridge needed to implement Article 22 (Biowaste) in the WFD and provide framework for sustainable biowaste recycling Targets for biowaste treatment incl. provisions for separate collection needed to drive this Example approach in Sweden NATIONAL target for 35 % of separately collected biowaste sent for biological treatment A very flexible approach – can be applied to most appropriate situations in the Member States
IFAT 2010 THE BIOWASTE ALLIANCE MEMBERS Calling on the Need for European-Wide Legislation Covering the Treatment of Biowaste and Association of Cities and Regions for Recycling and Sustainable Resource Management ACR+
IFAT 2010 Member States Expectations: The Bio-waste Coalition Established in 2006 Members: Austria, Blegium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Slovakia and Spain Demanding for legislative measures on EU level on biowaste in form of a Biowaste Directive which include binding targets
IFAT 2010 The European Parliament's Vision on Bio-waste In April 2010, the MEP José Manuel Fernandes stated that he: Urges the Commission to review the legislation applicable to bio-waste with a view... to drawing up a proposal for a specific directive by the end of 2010. This was also confirmed by the Environment Committee of the Parliament in May and June of this year with a very clear vote for a stand alone Bio-waste Directive and a mandatory separate collection of biowaste. Question: What do we need more???
IFAT 2010 Realising the Bio-waste Recycling Vision Sustainable Bio-waste Policy and Legislation enables: Framework for both public and private sectors to plan and invest Collaboration and integration of recycling systems Critical mass and adequate returns on investment Innovation Reduced economic, social and environmental risk Gaining confidence of market and consumers Successful biowaste recycling across the EU27 through targets and quality assurance systems Targets QAS Markets