Presentation on theme: "Critique of the DPSIR framework"— Presentation transcript:
1 Critique of the DPSIR framework Alice NewtonIMAR- University of Algarve
2 DPSIR “vocabulary” Drivers Pressures State Impacts Responses Advantage:ordinary wordsnot jargonDisadvantage:frequently misused orsubstitutedDPSIR is a causal framework for describing the interactions between society and the environment.This framework has been adopted by the European Environment Agency. The components of this model are:Driving forcesPressuresStatesImpactsResponsesThis framework is an extension of the pressure-state-response model developed by OECD.As a first step, data and information on all the different elements in the DPSIR chain is collected. Then possible connections between these different aspects are postulated. Through the use of the DPSIR modelling framework, it is possible to gauge the effectiveness of responses put into placeOECD (1993).OECD core set of indicators for environmental performance reviews. OECD Environment Monographs No. 83. OECD. Paris.
3 DPSIR + eutrophication PressuresDPSIR + eutrophicationBODDONutrientsState variablesResponsesOECD 1993Core set of Indicators for Environmental Performance Reviews.Environment Monographs 83. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, ParisOECD, 2004Key Environmental Indicators. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, ParisIndicators of environmental pressures:A complete set of pressure indicators would comprise emissions of nitrogen and phosphatefrom manure, fertilizer, domestic and industrial waste water, sewage sludge, dredge spoil andsolid waste, corrected for the absorption of phosphates and nitrogen by crops. This could befurther extended to reflect a proper nutrient balance.Data availability: at the international level, few data are available for the entire range of emissionsources of phosphorus or nitrogen as well as for the absorption of phosphates and nitrogen bycrops. Currently, measurements are confined to the apparent consumption of fertilizers andgeneral information on waste water discharges.Aggregate amounts of fertilizers must be measured in terms of N or P to account fordifferent types of fertilizers. Livestock density provides a rough but measurable proxy forpotential eutrophication from manure.Indicators of environmental conditions:Direct indicators of the extent of eutrophication relate to the phosphate and nitrate contents of inland andmarine waters. Biological oxygen demand of water bodies or the degree of dissolved oxygencan also be considered indicative of eutrophication.Measuring excess nutrients in soil complicates matters significantly. The focus of indicators istherefore on water. A general problem related to indicators of ambient quality is how to carry outspatial aggregation to present meaningful national figures: forming averages is seldom a satisfactorysolution so that often data of representative sites are shown rather than national figures.Data availability: at the international level, data are available for BOD, phosphate and nitrateconcentrations for selected rivers in OECD countries (Source: OECD).Indicators of societal responses:Several indicators would appear useful to show society’s efforts towards reducing eutrophication andexcess nutrients: the extent of chemical and/or biological waste water treatment, the extent towhich levies on sewage water treatment cover actual costs, the market share of phosphate-freedetergents. For non-point sources, in particular agricultural ones, an indicator reflecting bestfarming practices could be introduced.Data availability: for OECD countries, data on the share of the population connected to sewagetreatment plants are available in the short run (Source: OECD). Information on the type oftreatment and on waste water charges remains partial. Data on the market share of phosphatefreedetergents should be available more easily (Source: industry associations).O.E.C.D. 1993, 2004
4 DPSIR + eutrophication Pdf: (5.2 EEA Tech Rep 86 Eutro indic)European Environment Agency (EEA). 2001Gunni Ærtebjerg, Jacob Carstensen, Karsten Dahl, Jørgen Hansen, Kari Nygaard, Brage Rygg, Kai Sørensen, Gunnar Severinsen, Sara Casartelli, Wolfram Schrimpf, Christian Schiller, Jean Noel Druon, Anita KünitzerEutrophication in Europe’s coastal watersTopic report 7/2001
5 Drivers: need to update, maybe price of oil will be a major driver with increased biofuels Pressures: need to consider “difficult” aspects such as loss of denitrifying wetlands, atmospheric deposition
6 Examples of “New” drivers Tourism: car, plane, golf, demographics of coastLifestyles: joining EU!, changing economies central to market, changing diets, more meatAgriculture (actually biomass production): biofuels, aquaculture
7 Environmental Ecological Economic Social Health Impacts Need to break these down and check on all to see if there is are impacts that are:Environmental Ecological Economic SocialHealth
8 Impacts environmental e.g. increase turbidity, ecological, e.g. loss of biodiversity,economic e.g. lower fish catches,social e.g. loss of fishing jobshealth e.g. contaminated shellfish
9 Impacts Environmental Ecological Economic Social Health Poor water qualityLoss of seagrass, ecosystem service nursery functionLoss of fishing catch and revenuesLoss of fishing jobsContaminated shellfish
10 ECOLOGICAL IMPACT Biological Quality Elements Phytoplankton Other plantsBenthosFishAnnex V of WFD and Intercalibration
11 STATE IMPACT (ECOLOGICAL) Supporting elements:Nutrient concentrationsSi:NN:PTransparencyBottom water OxygenBQE metricsChlorophyll aCell countsHABOpportunist algae biomassBiodiversity of benthosAMBIBiological Quality ElementsPhytoplanktonOther plantsBenthosFishAnnex V of WFD and Intercalibration
12 ECOLOGICAL ECONOMIC IMPACT IMPACT PhytoplanktonIncrease HABs, NABsOther plantsLoss of seagrassIncrease opportunistic algaeBenthosLoss of sensitive taxa,Increase tolerant taxaFishLoss of nurseries for juvenilesLoss of sensitive taxaLoss of aquaculture revenueLoss of tourism revenuePublic health concerns ASP, DSP, NSPCost of removing algaeMass mortalitiesLoss of shellfisheries revenueFish killsLoss of fisheries revenueAnnex V of WFD and Intercalibration
13 e.g. new management criteria, new infrastructure, Responsesof society,e.g. new management criteria, new infrastructure,new policy
15 Drivers: need to update, maybe price of oil will be a major driver with increased biofuels Pressures: need to consider “difficult” aspects such as loss of denitrifying wetlands, atmospheric depositionState: need to test the metrics for the physico-chemical supporting quality elements and the Biological Quality Elements and move towards INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTImpact: must link economic impact to ecological impacts, NOT consider them separately. Clearly shows the value of ecosystem servicesResponse: Should address the drivers! Is building UWWT plants the only answer? What about CAP and farming practices?