Presentation on theme: "There are five fundamental units of grammatical structure: morpheme, word, phrase, clause, and sentence. Morphemes - units of sound that have meaning (cats."— Presentation transcript:
1 There are five fundamental units of grammatical structure: morpheme, word, phrase, clause, and sentence.Morphemes - units of sound that have meaning (cats = 2)WordsPhrases and clauses are group of words.While phrase does not have subject and predicate,clause does have its own subject and predicate.A sentence has at least one clause.Complex sentences have more than one clause – maybe a clause and one or more phrases, or more than one clause.
2 Because Dad caught the chicken pox, we canceled our vacation. Independent clause: a clause that has a subject and a verb and can stand alone - a complete sentence. Dependent clause: a clause that has a subject and a verb but cannot stand alone - an incomplete sentenceThe new house has a large fenced backyard, so I am sure our dog will enjoy it.Because Dad caught the chicken pox, we canceled our vacation.
3 Yesterday was her brother's birthday so she took him out to dinner.
4 Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet.The game was over, but the crowd refused to leave.The student explained her question, yet the instructor still didn't seem to understand.Yesterday was her brother's birthday, so she took him out to dinner.
5 If you are ill you ought to see a doctor If you are ill you ought to see a doctor. The cat scratched at the door while I was eating.
6 Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause. a. Common starter words for introductory clauses that should be followed by a comma include after, although, as, because, if, since, when, while.While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door.Because her alarm clock was broken, she was late for class.If you are ill, you ought to see a doctor.When the snow stops falling, we'll shovel the driveway.However, don't put a comma after the main clause when a dependent (subordinate) clause follows it.INCORRECT: The cat scratched at the door, while I was eating.
8 b. Common introductory phrases that should be followed by a comma include participial and infinitive phrases, absolute phrases, nonessential appositive phrases, and long prepositional phrases (over four words).Having finished the test, he left the room. (participial-adj)To get a seat, you'd better come early. (infinitive)After the test but before lunch, I went jogging. (prepositional)The sun radiating intense heat, we sought shelter in the cafe. (absolute)
10 c. Common introductory words that should be followed by a comma include yes, however, well. Well, perhaps he meant no harm.Yes, the package should arrive tomorrow morning.However, you may not be satisfied with the results.
11 That Tuesday which happens to be my birthday is the only day when I am available to meet. Students who cheat only harm themselves.
12 Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not essential to the meaning of the sentence. How do you know if it’s essential? If you leave out the clause, phrase, or word, does the sentence still make sense? Does the clause, phrase, or word interrupt the flow of words in the original sentence?Clause: That Tuesday, which happens to be my birthday, is the only day when I am available to meet.Phrase: This restaurant has an exciting atmosphere. The food, on the other hand, is rather bland.Word: I appreciate your hard work. In this case, however, you seem to have over-exerted yourself.Examples of other essential elements (no commas):Students who cheat only harm themselves.The baby wearing a yellow jumpsuit is my niece.
13 The apples that fell out of the basket are bruised.
14 The book that I borrowed from you is excellent. Do not use commas to set off essential elements of the sentence, such as clauses beginning with that (relative clauses). That clauses after nouns are always essential. That clauses following a verb expressing mental action are always essential. That clauses after nouns:The book that I borrowed from you is excellent.The apples that fell out of the basket are bruised.
15 The prosecutor argued that the defendant who was at the scene of the crime who had a strong revenge motive and who had access to the murder weapon was guilty of homicide.
16 Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses written in a series. The Constitution establishes the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government.The candidate promised to lower taxes, protect the environment, reduce crime, and end unemployment.The prosecutor argued that the defendant, who was at the scene of the crime, who had a strong revenge motive, and who had access to the murder weapon, was guilty of homicide.
17 The Oxford comma is the comma that precedes the conjunction before the final item in a list of three or more items. …France, Italy, and Spain. …France, Italy and Spain. Opinions among writers and editors differ on whether or not to use the serial comma. In American English, a majority of style guides mandate use of the serial comma, including APA style, The Chicago Manual of Style, The MLA Style Manual, Strunk and White's Elements of Style, and the U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual. In contrast, the Associated Press Stylebook and the Stylebook published by The Canadian Press for journalistic writing advise against it. It is used less often in British English, but some British style guides require it, including The Oxford Style Manual.
18 Your cousin has an easy happy smile. They lived in a white frame house.
19 Use commas to separate two or more coordinate adjectives that describe the same noun. You can decide if two adjectives in a row are coordinate by asking the following questions: Does the sentence make sense if the adjectives are written in reverse order? Does the sentence make sense if the adjectives are written with and between them?He was a difficult, stubborn child. (coordinate)They lived in a white frame house. (non-coordinate)She often wore a gray wool shawl. (non-coordinate)Your cousin has an easy, happy smile. (coordinate)
21 Use a comma near the end of a sentence to separate contrasted coordinate elements or to indicate a distinct pause or shift.He was merely ignorant, not stupid.The chimpanzee seemed reflective, almost human.You're one of the senator's close friends, aren't you?The speaker seemed innocent, even gullible.
22 Birmingham Alabama gets its name from Birmingham England. Rachel B Birmingham Alabama gets its name from Birmingham England. Rachel B. Lake MD will be the principal speaker.
23 Use commas to set off all geographical names, items in dates (except the month and day), addresses (except the street number and name), and titles in names.Birmingham, Alabama, gets its name from Birmingham, England.July 22, 1959, was a momentous day in his life.Who lives at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, DC?Rachel B. Lake, MD, will be the principal speaker.
24 "I was able" she answered "to complete the assignment.”
25 Use a comma to shift between the main discourse and a quotation. John said without emotion, "I'll see you tomorrow.”"I was able," she answered, "to complete the assignment.”In 1848, Marx wrote, "Workers of the world, unite!"
27 To George, Harrison had been a sort of idol. Use commas wherever necessary to prevent possible confusion or misreading.To George, Harrison had been a sort of idol.
28 Dan struggled with his homework his father helped him.
29 Dan struggled with his homework, his father helped him. A comma splice is an error in which two independent clauses are joined by a comma.Dan struggled with his homework, his father helped him.
30 To Correct a Comma Splice • Insert a conjunction between the two independent clauses. • Start a new sentence. • Insert a semi-colon between the two independent clauses (only in cases where the independent clauses are closely related in topic).Dan struggled with his homework, so his father helped him.Dan struggled with his homework. His father helped him.Dan struggled with his homework; his father helped him.
31 Road construction in Minneapolis has hindered travel around town streets have become covered with bulldozers trucks and cones.
32 Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses when the second clause restates the first or when the two clauses are of equal emphasis.Road construction in Minneapolis has hindered travel around town; streets have become covered with bulldozers, trucks, and cones.
33 Global warming has become a recent concern in fact the concern for the future of the world has led to an awareness of carbon emissions.
34 Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses when the second clause begins with a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore, moreover, furthermore, thus, meanwhile, nonetheless, otherwise) or a transition (in fact, for example, that is, for instance, in addition, in other words, on the other hand, even so).Global warming has become a recent concern; in fact, the concern for the future of the world has led to an awareness of carbon emissions.
35 Recent sites of the Olympic Games include Athens Greece Salt Lake City Utah Sydney Australia Nagano Japan.
36 Use a semicolon to join elements of a series when individual items of the series already include commas.Recent sites of the Olympic Games include Athens, Greece; Salt Lake City, Utah; Sydney, Australia; and Nagano, Japan.
37 Julie went to the store for some groceries milk bread coffee and cheese.
38 Use a colon after an independent clause when it is followed by a list, a quotation, appositive, or other idea directly related to the independent clause.Julie went to the store for some groceries: milk, bread, coffee, and cheese.