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CHAPTER 9 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND DESIGN Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–1.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 9 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND DESIGN Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–1."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 9 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND DESIGN Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–1

2 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–2 Designing Organizational Structure Few topics in management have undergone as much change in the past few years as organizing and organizational structure. Managers are re-evaluating traditional approaches to find new structural designs that support and facilitate employees’ doing the work (mainly focussing on efficiency, effectiveness and flexibility). Organizational Structure  The formal arrangement of jobs within an organization.

3 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–3 Defining Organizational Structure Organizational Chart (Organogram)  Visual representation of organizational structure. Organizational Design  A process involving decisions about six key elements:  Work specialization  Departmentalization  Chain of command  Span of control  Centralization and decentralization  Formalization

4 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–4 Organizational Structure Work Specialization  The degree to which tasks in the organization are divided into separate jobs with each step completed by a different person.  Overspecialization can result in human diseconomies from boredom, fatigue, stress, poor quality, increased absenteeism, and higher turnover.  Most managers today see work specialization as an important organizing mechanism as it helps employees to be more efficient.

5 EXAMPLE OF WORK SPECIALIZATION

6 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–6 Departmentalization The way in which jobs are grouped together is called departmentalization. There are 5 common forms of departmentalization. Large organizations often combine most or all of these forms of departmentalization. A popular trend today is cross-functional teams, which are work teams composed of individuals from various functional specialities.

7 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–7 Departmentalization by Type  Product departmentalization: organized based on the goods and services a company offers.  Geographical departmentalization: organized by geographical regions within a country or, for a multinational firm, by region throughout the world.  Customer departmentalization: organized by the different types of customers the organization serves.  Functional departmentalization: organized by business functions such as finance, marketing, human resources, and production.  Process departmentalization: organized by work processes necessary to complete production of goods or services.

8 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–8 Figure 10.2a Functional Departmentalization Geographical Departmentalization

9 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 10–9 Figure 10.2c Product Departmentalization Source: Bombardier Annual Report. Process Departmentalization

10 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–10 Figure 10.2d Customer Departmentalization

11 Different forms of Departmentalization in a single company

12 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–12 Organization Structure (cont’d) Chain of Command  The continuous line of authority that extends from upper levels of an organization to the lowest levels of the organization and clarifies who reports to who.

13 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–13 Organization Structure (cont’d) Authority  The rights inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to do and to expect them to do it. Responsibility  The obligation or expectation to perform. Unity of Command  The concept that a person should have one boss and should report only to that person. Early management theorists believed that chain of command, authority, responsibility and unity of command were essential, but times have changed.

14 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–14 Organization Structure (cont’d) Span of Control  The number of employees who can be effectively and efficiently supervised by a manager. Determining the span of control is important because to a large degree, it determines the number of levels and managers in an organization. All other things being equal, the wider or larger the span, the more efficient (in terms of cost) the organization is. But wider spans may reduce effectiveness.

15 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–15 Figure 10.3 Contrasting Spans of Control

16 Organization Structure (cont’d)  Width of span is affected by:  Skills and abilities of the manager  Employee characteristics  Characteristics of the work being done  Similarity of tasks  Complexity of tasks  Physical proximity of subordinates  Standardization of tasks The trend in recent years has been towards larger spans of control. Managers are realizing that they can handle a wider span when employees know their jobs well and understand organizational processes.

17 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–17 Organization Structure (cont’d) Centralization  The degree to which decision-making is concentrated at a single point in the organizations.  Organizations in which top managers make all the decisions and lower-level employees simply carry out those orders. Decentralization  Organizations in which decision-making is pushed down to the managers who are closest to the action. Employee Empowerment  Increasing the decision-making authority,

18 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–18 Organization Structure (cont’d) Formalization  The degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized and the extent to which employee behavior is guided by rules and procedures.  Highly formalized jobs offer little discretion over what is to be done.  Low formalization means fewer constraints on how employees do their work.

19 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–19 Mechanistic versus Organic Organization Mechanistic Organization  A rigid and tightly controlled structure  High specialization  Rigid departmentalization  Narrow spans of control  High formalization  Limited information network (downward)  Low decision participation Organic Organization  Highly flexible and adaptable structure  Non-standardized jobs  Fluid team-based structure  Little direct supervision  Minimal formal rules  Open communication network  Empowered employees

20 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–20 Structural Contingency Factors Structural decisions are influenced by:  Overall strategy of the organization  Organizational structure follows strategy.  Size of the organization  Firms change from organic to mechanistic organizations as they grow in size.  Technology used by the organization  Firms adapt their structure to the technology they use.  Routine technology = mechanistic organizations  Non-routine technology = organic organizations  Degree of environmental uncertainty  Dynamic environments require organic structures; mechanistic structures need stable environments.

21 Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.10–21 Common Organizational Designs Traditional Designs  Simple structure  Low departmentalization, wide spans of control, centralized authority, little formalization  Functional structure  Departmentalization by function –Operations, finance, human resources, and product research and development  Divisional structure  Composed of separate business units or divisions with limited autonomy under the coordination and control of the parent corporation.

22 10–22 Organizational Designs (cont’d) Contemporary Organizational Designs


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