4 Types of Personalities Type AType BFeel time pressure.Easily angered.Competitive and ambitious.Work hard and play hard.More prone to heart disease than rest of population.Relaxed and easygoing.But some people fit in neither type.
5 Trait Theory Main Ideas Describes people’s personalities by specifying their main characteristics (traits)We have stable, long-lasting traitsThe same traits appear in many different situationsThe same traits can be used to describe all people’s personalities.Personality Inventories (tests)
6 Trait TheoryCritics of Trait Theory say that personality comes from the situation we are in.
7 Trait Theory Introversion-Extroversion Scale Hans Eysenck Introverts tend to be more imaginative and look inward rather than to others for ideas and energy.Extroverts tend to be active, outgoing and gain energy from interaction with other people.
8 Trait Theory “OCEAN” BIG FIVE personality traits: Extraversion NEO Five Factor Inventory TestNeuroticism-Extroversion-Openness InventoryBIG FIVE personality traits:ExtraversionAgreeablenessConscientiousnessOpenness to experienceNeuroticism -Emotional stability“OCEAN”Everyone’s personality is made up of these five basic factors.
10 Trait Theory I am interested in people. I feel others’ emotions. I have a soft heart.I make people feel at ease.I sympathize with others’ feelings.I take time out for others.I am not interested in other people’s problems.I am not really interested in others.I feel little concern for others.I insult people.***Sample Agreeableness Questions
11 Trait Theory I am always prepared. I am exacting in my work. I follow a schedule.I get chores done right away.I like order.I pay attention to details.I leave my belongings around.I make a mess of things. I often forget to put things back in their proper place.I shirk my duties.***Sample Conscientiousness Questions.
12 Trait Theory I am the life of the party. I don't mind being the center of attention.I feel comfortable around people.I start conversations.I talk to a lot of different people at parties.I am quiet around strangers.I don't like to draw attention to myself.I don't talk a lot.I have little to say.**Sample Extroversion Questions
13 Trait Theory I am relaxed most of the time. I seldom feel blue. I rarely feel nervousI am easily disturbed.I change my mood a lot.I get irritated easily.I get stressed out easily.I get upset easily.I have frequent mood swings.I often feel blue.I worry about things.**Sample Neuroticism-Emotional Stability Questions
14 Trait Theory I am full of ideas. I am quick to understand things. I have a rich vocabulary.I have a vivid imagination.I have excellent ideas.I spend time reflecting on things.I use difficult words.I am not interested in abstract ideas.I do not have a good imagination.I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas.**Sample Openness Questions
16 Trait TheoryMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)Classroom activity
17 US Population Breakdown MBTI The table organizing the sixteen types was created by Isabel Myers (an INFP).ISTJ 11–14%ISFJ 9–14%INFJ 1–3%INTJ 2–4%ISTP 4–6%ISFP 5–9%INFP 4–5%INTP 3–5%ESTP 4–5%ESFP 4–9%ENFP 6–8%ENTP 2–5%ESTJ 8–12%ESFJ 9–13%ENFJ 2–5%ENTJ 2–5%Estimated percentages of the 16 types in the U.S. population.
18 ISTJ - The Duty Fulfillers ESTJ - The GuardiansISFJ - The NurturersESFJ - The CaregiversISTP - The MechanicsESTP - The DoersESFP - The PerformersISFP - The ArtistsENTJ - The ExecutivesINTJ - The ScientistsENTP - The VisionariesINTP - The ThinkersENFJ - The GiversINFJ - The ProtectorsENFP - The InspirersINFP - The Idealists
19 Be careful of the Barnum Effect! People have the tendency to see themselves in vague descriptions of personality.Horoscopes, astrologers, and psychics all use this concept.“You have a need for other people to like and admire you, and yet you tend to be critical of yourself. While you have some personality weaknesses you are generally able to compensate for them. You have considerable unused capacity that you have not turned to your advantage. At times you have serious doubts whether you have made the right decision or done the right thing.”“Take a step back and try to avoid risks for the day. Things aren't that bad, really, but you may find that it's easier to just play it safe and let others take the fall, if there…”
21 Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Fathered by Sigmund Freud.We have inner struggles and urges!Often sex & aggressionBiological drives vs. social normsStages of Psycho-Sexual DevelopmentLibido (sex drive) moving through our bodiesOral (0-1 yr)Anal (2-3)Phallic (4-5)Latent (6-12)Genital (12+)What’s on our minds!!!
22 Erotic Focus Key Tasks &Fixations Oral-mouth (sucking, biting) Weaning from breast or bottle. Excessive smoking, drinking, overeating, dependence on othersAnal-Anus (expelling or retaining feces)Toilet training. Overly controlling (anal retentive) or easily angered (anal expulsive)Phallic-genitals (masturbating)Identifying with adult role models; coping with Oedipal Crisis. Guilt/anxiety about sexLatency-none (sexually latent or dormant)Expanding social contacts. No FixationGenital-genitals (being sexually intimate)Establishing intimate relationships. No fixation
23 Freud said what?! Oedipus Complex Electra Complex A male child’s sexual desire for his mother and his hostility toward his father, whom he considers to be a rival for his mother’s love.A son's unconscious unresolved sexual attraction to his mother.Castration Anxiety-birth of superegoElectra ComplexA female child’s sexual desire for her father and her hostility toward her mother, whom she considers to be a rival for her father’s love.A daughter's unconscious unresolved sexual attraction to her father.Penis envy
24 Our Personality Conscious- things we are aware of. Preconscious- things we can be aware of if we think of them.Unconscious- deep hidden reservoir that holds the true “us”. All of our desires and fears.
26 Freud’s Concept of Personality (Psyche) IdEgoSuperego
27 Id Exists entirely in the unconscious (so we are never aware of it). Our hidden true animalistic wants and desires. (survival, sex, aggression)Works on the Pleasure PrincipleAvoid Pain and receive instant gratification.
28 Ego Develops after the Id Works on the Reality Principle If you want to be with someone. Your Id says just take them, but your Ego does not want to end up in jail. So you ask her out and buy her things!!Develops after the IdWorks on the Reality PrincipleGratification must be delayed at times.Negotiates between the Id and the real world.
29 Superego Develops last at about the age of 5 It is our conscience, parental and societal morals (what we think the difference is between right and wrong).The Ego often mediates between the Superego and Id.
30 Freud’s Concept of Personality Quick Summary Ego-Manages conflict between Id & constraints of the real world.Reality principleSuperegoMoral componentParents & societyIdInstinctual energy/biological urgesSex & aggressionPleasure principle
31 Defense MechanismsThe Ego has a pretty important job…and that is to protect you from threatening thoughts in your unconscious.One way it protects us is through defense mechanisms.You are usually unaware that they are even occurring-usually automatic & unconscious.
32 ScenarioQuarterback of the high school football team, Brandon, is dating Jasmine. Jasmine dumps Brandon and starts dating Drew, president of the Chess Club.JasmineBrandonDrew
33 RepressionPushing unpleasant thoughts, feelings,& memories into our unconscious.When asked about Jasmine, Brandon may say “Who?, I have not thought about her for awhile.”Why don’t we remember our Oedipus and Electra complexes?
34 Denial Not accepting the ego-threatening truth. Refusing to acknowledge something that is obvious to others.Brandon may act like he is still together with Jasmine. He may hang out by her locker and plan dates with her.
36 DisplacementTransferring one’s feelings toward another person or object.Often displaced on less threatening things.Brandon may take his anger out on another kid by bullying.
37 ProjectionAttributing one’s own unacceptable thoughts or feelings to someone else.Projecting your feelings unto others.Brandon insists that Jasmine still cares for him.
38 Reaction Formation Brandon claims he hates Jasmine. Expressing the opposite of how one truly feels.Behaving in a way that is opposite to behavior, feelings, or thoughts that are considered unacceptable.“Cootie stage” in Freud’s Latent Development.“Closet cases”Brandon claims he hates Jasmine.
40 RegressionReturning to an earlier, comforting, more immature form of behavior.Thumb suckingBrandon begins to sleep with his favorite childhood stuffed animal.
41 RationalizationComing up with a beneficial result of an undesirable outcome.Brandon thinks he will find a better girlfriend. “Jasmine was not all that anyway!”I really did not want to go to ……..anyway, it was too ……
42 IntellectualizationUndertaking an academic, unemotional study of a topic.Brandon starts doing a research paper on failed teenage romances.
43 Sublimation Channeling one’s frustration toward a different goal. Channeling thoughts and feelings into socially acceptable behavior.Sometimes a healthy defense mechanism.Brandon starts to learn to play the guitar and writes songs (or maybe starts to body build).
44 Criticisms of Freud He really only studied wealthy woman in Austria. His results are not empirically verifiable (really hard to test).No predictive power.Karen Horney (Horn-eye) said he was sexist with the “penis envy” and there is an actual “womb envy”.
45 Neo-FreudiansPsychologists that took some premises from Freud and built upon them.Carl JungKaren HorneyAlfred Adler
46 Alfred Adler Childhood is important to personality. But focus should be on social factors- not sexual ones.Our behavior is driven by our efforts to conquer inferiority and feel superior.Inferiority Complex
47 Karen HorneyChildhood anxiety is caused by a dependent child’s feelings of helplessness.This triggers our desire for love and security.Fought against Freud’s “penis envy” concept.Womb envy
48 Carl Jung Less emphasis on social factors. Focused on the unconscious. We all have a collective unconscious: a shared/inherited well of memory traces from our species’ history.
49 Psychoanalysis Today Couch sitting The idea is to delve into your unconscious.Begin with your Manifest Content, then delve deeper into the Latent Content.
50 Getting into the Unconscious HypnosisDream InterpretationFree Association - having the patient randomly talk to themselves…and then interpreting the conversation.Projective Tests - tests that delve into the unconscious.Examples are TAT and Inkblot Tests.Class activity…get out a sheet of paper!
54 TAT Test Thematic Apperception Test Giving the subject a picture that is ambiguous (can have several meanings) and ask them what is occurring.Their answers reveal the Manifest Content.They can then discover the Latent Content.What does your answers say about you?
55 Rorschach Inkblot Test The most widely used projective testA set of ten inkblots designed to identify people’s feelings when they are asked to interpret what they see in the inkblots.
58 Usually interpreted according to factors such as: Location-whole card or just a detailDeterminants-shading, texture, colorContent-precise object you seeForm level-answer is in keeping with actual shape of the blot
60 Behaviorist Theory of Personality The way most people think of personality is meaningless.Personality changes according to the environment (reinforcers and punishments).If you change the environment, then you change the personality.
61 Humanistic Theory of Personality Do not believe in Determinism (your actions are dictated by your past).They believe that humans have free will (our ability to choose our own destiny).We are innately good and as long as our self-esteem and self-concept are positive, we will be happy.