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© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart Dr. Martin Braun Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering IAO Stuttgart (Germany) Forum »Towards a Sustainable Working Life« Brussels, 29. October 2009 Prevention through human-centered design – Information work and OHS
© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart Profile of Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering Located:Stuttgart, Germany Founded:1981 Director:Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Dieter Spath Staff:210 employees*, 185 student assistants Budget:24 million EUR*, of which 38% from industrial contracts Internet:www.iao.fraunhofer.de * Figures from 2007, including IAT University of Stuttgart
© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart Fraunhofer IAO – Our areas of expertise Technology Management Organisational Development Human Factors Human Resources Management Information Technology Strategy Development Future Scenarios Technology Radar Digital Production IT Management Service Engineering Knowledge Management Product Design Usability Engineering Occupational Health Change Management Learning Environments HR Development Virtual Reality Virtual Engineering IT-Strategies Rapid Product Development Evaluation of New Technologies Research and Development Roadmaps Research and Development Management Business Process Management Innovation Management Production Management Future Office Performance Management Age-based Living Environment Demographic Trends Work Innovation Remuneration Software Engineering and Management Document and Workflow Management Mobile Software Applications
© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart Agenda Presentation of Fraunhofer IAO Recent developments in occupational health Creativity and health: the principle of dynamic balance Impulses for a preventive work design Conclusion
© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart Impact of work on health: Percentage of workers reporting each individual symptom, European Union 27 Nearly one third of German workers is absent from work due to health problems, with the average duration of absence 3.5 days. With 3.6 % the absenteeism rate in Germany is on the lowest level in the past 30 years. At the same time, a significant increase in psychological illnesses is reported. SymptomPercentage Backache24,7 % Muscular pain22,8 Fatigue22,6 Stress22,3 Headache15,5 Irritability10,5 Injuries9,7 Sleeping problems8,7 Anxiety7,8 Eyesight problems7,8 Hearing problems7,2 Skin problems6,6 Stomach ache5,8 Breathing difficulties4,8 Allergies4,0 Heart disease2,4 Other1,6 Source: Fourth Survey on working conditions in the European Union, 2005
© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart Recent developments in occupational health Over the past years the number of psychological illnesses has significant increased. Occupational causes of illness are for example: Time and performing pressure: Two of three workers in Germany work at very high speed, with tight dead-lines. Monotone tasks without adequate job control. Poor corporate culture (e. g. bad leadership, insufficient collegial support, anxiety of job loss). We should regard the phenomena of occupational psychical illnesses primarily from the view of individual creativity and the companies capability for innovation – and less under the focus of absenteeism.
© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart The process of creativity Consciousness: Generating terms and ideas through mental activity Unconsciousness: Physical processes arouse autono- mous Inactivity: Mental activity needs physical inactivity Integrative emotions: Precondition for motivation and activation Physical Activity (including sensual perception): Bringing ideas to reality Distinctive emotions: Precondition for differentiation and focus Balance
© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart Health as a 3-dimensional heterostatic balance (scheme) active inactive integrative feeling unconscious / sleeping conscious / thinking Physical dimension Psychic dimension Mental dimension distinctive feeling
© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart Characteristics of heterostasis: Balance Dynamic Inner impulse The expression of dynamic balance is rhythmicity. Health is like wire walking… The person who doesn't keep his/her balance will fall down.
© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart Interdependence of circadian and homeostatic rhythms Mental and physical activities are subjected to rhythmical patterns of the organism, that are embedded in the rhythms of the natural environment (e. g. sun-light). high vigilance state 9 AM 3 PM3 AM9 PM Day - awakeNight - sleep sleep pressure alerting signal Circadian drive Homeostatic wake-sleep-curve depends on mental and physical activity Ideal output curve (as summeasure) Alerting by sun-light Source: Edgar et al. 1993 low vigilance state (sleep)
© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart Convergence from lighting and display. Dynamic lighting to support circadian and rhythms – with effects on creativity, awareness and health. Adaptive lighting systems, depending on the working context. »Heliosity«: Investigation of dynamic light system (i. e. intensity, frequency, time structure) to mental performance and individual health (ongoing project). Preliminary study results: Dynamic light seems to im- prove mental work by both an activating and relaxing effect. All subjects (N=10) preferred dynamic to static lighting. An integrated research lab: nLightenend Workplace
© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart Impulse for a human-centered office design Office is the place for mental work and communication. Mental work involve rhythmical phases of outward orientation (i. e. sensory perception, commu- nication) as well as inward orientation (i. e. concentration, cognition). Beneath communication space effective mental work also considers space and time for physical inactivity and internalisation. Phases of activity and inactivity can effectively be supported by lighting. Creativity Landscape at Fraunhofer OIC
© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart Conclusion We can only cope the challenges of the knowledge- based society if we have a better understanding of creativity and health. Health is not considered as an end in itself. Occupational health is much more an indicator for balanced working conditions that allow individual development and growth. Healthy (i. e. balanced) work does not only impact the process of information work ( sustainability), but also its results ( value of creativity). For promoting research and transfer activities in the field of occupational health we should emphasize its positive effects on the economic business situation.
© Fraunhofer IAO, IAT Universität Stuttgart Thank you for your attention! Contact: Dr. Martin Braun Fraunhofer-Institut for Industrial Engineering IAO Human Factors Engineering Nobelstraße 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany) Tel. +49-711/970-2176, Fax +49-711/970-2299 firstname.lastname@example.org
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