Chart 4.1 Measures of inflation (a) (a) Data are non seasonally adjusted.
Chart 4.2 CPI goods and services (a) (a) Data are non seasonally adjusted.
Chart 4.3 Stylised illustration of the contribution of changes in VAT to twelve-month CPI inflation (a) Sources: ONS and Bank calculations. (a) Data are shown at a quarterly frequency. (b) Past changes in VAT are as follows: cut from 17.5% to 15% in December 2008; and rise from 15% to 17.5% in January 2010. The share of prices subject to VAT is based on the 2009 basket. The examples make the simplifying assumption that businesses only adjust their prices in the months in which VAT was changed. (c) Forthcoming VAT rise is from 17.5% to 20% in January 2011. The share of prices subject to VAT is based on the 2010 basket. The examples make the assumption that one third of affected businesses raise their prices pre-emptively by the end of 2010. (d) All prices subject to the standard rate of VAT vary in response to the changes in VAT. (e) The prices of half of the CPI basket subject to the standard rate of VAT vary in response to the changes in VAT.
Chart 4.4 Stylised illustration of the contribution of import prices excluding fuels to CPI inflation (a) Sources: ONS and Bank calculations. (a) Goods and services import prices excluding fuels and the estimated impact of MTIC fraud are assumed to account for 25% of the CPI basket. The illustration is based on changes in non-energy import prices between 2007 Q2 and 2009 Q4, relative to their level in 2007 Q2. The swathe is produced by constructing a number of stylised profiles for import price pass-through based on different assumptions about the point at which pass-through begins, the time it takes for pass-through to complete and the extent of pass-through into consumer prices. The start point for pass-through is varied between two and four quarters after the change in import prices, the time taken for pass-through to complete is varied between two and four quarters and the extent of pass-through is varied between 75% and 100%. The illustration ends in 2010 Q2.
Chart 4.5 CPI passenger transport by air, oil prices and capacity utilisation in the airline sector (a) Sources: Bloomberg, CAA UK Airline Statistics, ONS and Bank calculations. (a) Data for CPI passenger transport by air and the sterling oil price are to September 2010. Data for capacity utilisation in the airline sector are to July 2010. (b) Six-month moving averages. (c) CAA data on used and available seat kilometres have been seasonally adjusted by Bank staff. Capacity utilisation is then constructed as the difference between used seat kilometres and available seat kilometres as a proportion of available seat kilometres.
Chart 4.6 Energy prices Sources: Bloomberg, Thomson Reuters Datastream and Bank calculations. (a) Brent forward prices for delivery in 10–21 days’ time. (b) Futures prices are averages during the fifteen working days to 3 November. (c) One-day forward price of UK natural gas.
Chart 4.7 Commodity prices (a) Sources: Standard & Poor’s and Thomson Reuters Datastream. (a) The agriculture and livestock, and industrial metals series are calculated using S&P (dollar) commodity price indices.
Chart 4.8 UK import prices and foreign export prices Sources: ONS, Thomson Reuters Datastream and Bank calculations. (a) Goods and services deflator, excluding the impact of MTIC fraud. (b) Domestic currency export prices of goods and services in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the United States, weighted according to their share in UK imports in 2009.
Chart 4.9 Indicators of output prices (a) Based on the Services Producer Price Index. Data are non seasonally adjusted. Data are to 2010 Q2 (b) Excludes food, beverages, tobacco and petrol. Data are non seasonally adjusted. Data are to 2010 Q3. Data are consistent with the Producer Prices Statistical Bulletin, September 2010.
Chart 4.10 Employees’ compensation, labour productivity and the unemployment rate Sources: ONS (including the Labour Force Survey) and Bank calculations. (a) Employees’ compensation at current prices divided by LFS total hours worked.
Chart 4.11 Market-based indicators of inflation expectations and selected forecasters’ inflation expectations Sources: Bank of England, Bloomberg, HM Treasury and Bank calculations. (a) Taken from Forecast for the UK economy: a comparison of independent forecasts. Based on the average of medium-term projections published in February, May, August and November.
Table 4.A Private sector earnings (a) Sources: Bank of England, Incomes Data Services, the Labour Research Department, ONS and XpertHR. (a) Based on quarterly data, unless otherwise stated. (b) Data in the two months to August. (c) Average over the past twelve months, based on monthly data. (d) Percentage points.
Table 4.B Survey measures of households’ inflation expectations (a) Sources: Bank of England, Barclays Capital, Citigroup, GfK NOP, ONS and YouGov. (a) The questions ask about expected changes in prices, but do not reference a specific price index. All measures are based on the median estimated price change. Averages are based on quarterly data unless otherwise specified. (b) Averages since November 2005. Based on monthly data. (c) Average since 2008 Q3.
Table 1 Companies’ reported and expected changes to prices and wage costs (a) Sources: CBI, ONS and Bank calculations. (a) Data for the manufacturing, business/consumer services and distribution sectors are weighted together by Bank staff using their shares in value added. Annual figures are averages of four-quarter growth rates, apart from the 2008 figure, which is the average of 2008 Q2–2008 Q4. (b) Companies are asked: ‘What has been the percentage change over the past twelve months in your own average output price for goods sold into UK markets and what is expected to occur over the coming twelve months?’. (c) Companies are asked: ‘What has been the percentage change over the past twelve months in the general level of prices in the markets that you compete in and what is expected to occur over the coming twelve months?’. (d) Companies are asked: ‘What has been the percentage change over the past twelve months in your wage/salary cost per person (including overtime and bonuses) and what is expected to occur over the coming twelve months?’.