Presentation on theme: "Julian Wilson, Climate Change Unit The GAW World Data Centre."— Presentation transcript:
Julian Wilson, Climate Change Unit The GAW World Data Centre for Aerosols Why? What? and what next? Ispra 18 th December 2008 CCU Seminar 1
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 2 Why is there a GAW world data centre at CCU? What does the World Data Centre for Aerosols do? What will it do in the future?
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 3 Why is there a GAW world data centre at CCU? Some Acronyms…… GEO: Group on Earth Observations (2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development & G8) co-ordinates efforts to build GEOSS. GEOSS: Global Earth Observation System of Systems: components covering Disasters; Health; Energy; Climate; Agriculture; Ecosystems; Biodiversity; Weather GCOS: Global Climate Observing System established 1992 (WMO, IOC, UNEP, ICSU) = adopted as the climate observation component of GEOSS. GCOS calls for systematic observations of ECVs to serve needs of UNFCCC & IPCC. ECVs: Essential Climate Variables 44 variables plus soil moisture needed to describe the climate. WMO/GAW: World Meteorological Organisation Global Atmosphere Watch Aerosol Network is the GCOS network for Aerosol Properties ECV. WDCA is the World Data Centre for the WMO/GAW Aerosol Network. WDCA is one of principal direct actions by the European Commission (as opposed to indirectly supported through project funding) that supports GCOS.
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 4 Why: Essential Climate Variables DomainEssential Climate Variables Atmospheric (over land, sea and ice) Surface: Air temperature, Precipitation, Air pressure, Surface radiation budget, Wind speed & direction, Water vapour. Upper-air: Earth radiation budget (including solar irradiance), Upper-air temperature (including MSU radiances), Wind speed & direction, Water vapour, Cloud properties. Composition: Carbon dioxide, Methane, Ozone, Other long-lived greenhouse gases , Aerosol properties.  Oceanic Surface: Sea-surface temperature, Sea-surface salinity, Sea level, Sea state, Sea ice, Current, Ocean colour (for biological activity), Carbon dioxide partial pressure. Sub-surface: Temperature, Salinity, Current, Nutrients, Carbon, Ocean tracers, Phytoplankton. Terrestrial   River discharge, Water use, Ground water, Lake levels, Snow cover, Glaciers and ice caps, Permafrost and seasonally-frozen ground, Albedo, Land cover (including vegetation type), Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), Leaf area index (LAI), Biomass, Fire disturbance, Soil moisture .    Including nitrous oxide (N 2 O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), and perfluorocarbons (PFCs).   Includes runoff (m 3 s -1 ), ground water extraction rates (m 3 yr -1 ) and location, snow cover extent (km 2 ) and duration, snow depth (cm), glacier/ice cap inventory and mass balance (kg m -2 yr -1 ), glacier length (m), ice sheet mass balance (kg m -2 yr -1 ) and extent (km 2 ), permafrost extent (km 2 ), temperature profiles and active layer thickness, above ground biomass (t/ha), burnt area (ha), date and location of active fire, burn efficiency (%vegetation burned/unit area).   ] Recognized as an emerging Essential Climate Variable (not part of the 44).
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 5 Why: Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) GAW established in 1989 by the Eleventh World Meteorological Congress (Cg-XI) as a major priority program. The mission of GAW is: 1. make reliable, comprehensive observations of the chemical composition and selected physical characteristics of the atmosphere on global and regional scales; 2. provide the scientific community with the means to predict future atmospheric states; 3. organize assessments in support of formulating environmental policy Comprises five measurement programs: Ozone & UV, GHGs & Reactive Gases, Precipitation Chemistry, Aerosols & Solar radiation.
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 6 What: GAW SAG Aerosol, chairman (until 2009): Dr. Urs Baltensperger (PSI, CH) (WCC) for Physical Aerosol Instrumentation: Dr. Ali Wiedensohler (IfT, DE) GAWTEC IV, VI, VIII, Schneefernhaus, Zugspitze etc. WDC Aerosols (IES JRC, IT)
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 7 What – GAW Aerosol Program The SAG Aerosol recommends that the GAW aerosol program include: for regional stations any one, or more of the following: optical depth mass (preferably in two size fractions) major chemical components in two size fractions light scattering coefficient for global stations as many as possible of the following: optical depth mass in two size fractions major chemical components in two size fractions light scattering & hemispheric backscattering coefficients at various wavelength light absorption coefficient aerosol number concentration cloud condensation nuclei number concentration at 0.5% supersaturation diffuse, global and direct solar radiation intermittently: aerosol size distribution; detailed size fractionated chemical composition; dependence of aerosol properties on relative humidity; CCN spectra at various supersaturations; LIDAR measurements and other altitude profiles.
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 8 What: WDCA activities Data Submission Data and Metadata Format: NARSTO data exchange standard (DES) extended CSV. NARSTO DES includes all the file metadata. Additional files provide more detailed information. Submission: Data are sent by ftp or Quality Analysis at WDCA: NARSTO quality analysis system – checks conformity with the DES and internal integrity of the data. QA summary added to each file archived, only posted to ftp site when no errors/warnings. Data Retrieval Procedure: Data available online from WDCA server and ftp. Data also supplied by Catalogue: Static & map based catalogue on WDCA server Archive: Both NARSTO and non-NARSTO archives accessible via ftp. Data: Data in NARSTO DES format. Data usage: free scientific use, acknowledgement of data originator for substantive use.
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 9 What: NARSTO Data Exchange Standard WDCA uses the NARSTO Data Exchange Standard both for submission and distribution of data – extended comma separated value ASCII format: data files can either be prepared in a spreadsheet, e.g. using the free excel template, or by scripts/programs, depending on data management at a particular site. The NARSTO DES is used by EPA, MSC, & IMPROVE in the N. America, WDCA & is an output option for NILU/EMEP (Co-ordinated data submission for european sites). The Data Exchange Standard has been used for exchanging aerosol physical and chemical data from aerosol chemistry to single particle analysis. It is supported by a quality assurance science centre: and each user community has its own quality assurance centre, WDCA in the case of GAW. Attempts to ensure that ALL relevant meta-data for informed use of data now & in future are available together with the data – ideal for long term archive such as WDCA
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 10 What: NARSTO File Structure, Metadata! HEADER FLAGS SITE DATA
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 11 What: NARSTO Flags Every data record is required to have a quality flag Only report valid (V1) or qualified valid (V2-V7) values Invalid values set to missing, avoids their inadvertent use
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 12 What: Data sets available ParameterNumber of stations submitting data Period coveredTotal N station years (files) Aerosol Optical Depth Aerosol Chemical Composition CCN CN Light Absorption / EBC Light scattering & back scattering Size distribution
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 13 What: Data sets available AODChem. CompositionCN Lscat & BscatLabs Size dist.
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 14 What: Global station situation nov 2006
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 15 What: Global station situation Dec 2008
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 16 What: Users File downloads from external addresses. 4x increase from summer 2007 to winter 2008 as a result of increased data availability.
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 17 What Next AOD metadata portal – Chryssa Doxani Data products, not just data sets in first instance: NARSTO QA reports Enhance data submission – for the slower global stations, twinning with an active station and or SAG member to get them to submit data regularly.
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 18 What next: AOD Metadata Portal international AERONET including AEROCAN, PHOTONS BSRN GAW-PFR Skynet national – US networks including ARM, SURFRAD, ESRL, USDA Australia BOM JMA China KNMI (Netherlands, Surinam) FMI DWD CHARM (Meteosuisse) SIBNET (Russia) NASA AERONET AOD network (B. Holben,GSFC) Other AOD networks (C. Wehrli, WRRC)
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 19 What next: AOD Metadata portal Chryssa has: Collected metadata for GAW & non-GAW AOD networks – e.g. AERONET, Skynet. Built a relational database (Access). Cold fusion interface to web pages. Database structure is generic so it can accommodate non AOD-metadata (stage –II) Interface to the WDCA web pages – search for AOD data by criteria e.g. country, WMO region, latitude & longitude etc. Search returns details of data sets & their locations.
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 20 What next: NARSTO QA reports summary reports summary statistics time series overlaid time-series
Ispra 18 th December 2008 – CCU Seminar 21 What now: The Cake Recipe Rasins, Sultanas, Currants, Cherries, Candied peel Almonds & Walnut, Muscovado sugar, black treacle, Butter, Eggs, Flour Marzipan, Icing & a little brandy……….. Happy Christmas!