Presentation on theme: "Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) & Challenges"— Presentation transcript:
1 Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) & Challenges Plan Kenya Experiences, Achievements, ChallengesRegional Water & Sanitation WorkshopFairview Hotel – Nairobi(18th – 21st Oct. 2010)
2 Plan International: Who we are Plan is an international humanitarian, child centered, development organization, without religious, political or governmental affiliation;Plan’s vision is of a world in which all children realize their full potential in societies that respect people’s rights and dignity;75 Years of Existence; 48 Program Countries (13 in ESA Region)In since Kenya 1982 (28yrs)
4 Country Goal & Programs Country Goal: Transformed Institutions & Societies That Respect and Fulfil Rights of All Children in Kenya.Country Programs: Right toHealth [includes Water & Sanitation]Quality Basic EducationInclusion & ProtectionSustainable and Dignified LivelihoodsJust and Democratic Governance
5 Plan Kenya & Others: Long History of Latrine Subsidies
7 What is CLTS? Community-Led Total Sanitation A “Participatory and Learning Action” approach based on stimulating a collective sense of disgust, shame and fear among community members as they confront the crude reality about mass open defecation [environmental contamination] and its negative effects on the entire community.
8 Underlying Assumptions of CLTS No one can stay unmoved once they discover they are ingesting other people’s or their own faeces;High sense of shame and disgust hold the power to ignite people to take action and use their resources (not subsidy) to stop open defecation and be totally sanitised;
9 CLTS isCommunity-led: They lead and everyone in the community is involved;Total: 100% elimination of open defecation & practice of good hygiene;Sanitation: Beyond construction of toilet;Collective action: Often locally decided and not dependent on external subsidies and prescriptions of solutions.
10 CLTS: Sequence of Key Steps Pre-triggering: buy-in, selection of sites, training, introduction and building rapport;Triggering: Sanitation profile –mapping- calculation of quantities-transect walk- flow- channels-effects-costs-ignition moment-action planning;Post-triggering: implementation of Action plans, follow-up, monitoring and documentation.Scaling up: Going beyond CLTS…what next?
12 Triggering Responses Triggering produces different responses Damp matchboxMatchbox in a gasstationScattered sparksPromisingflames
13 Background to CLTS in Kenya With previous pace and approaches, it would take >100 years and >$30 billion to achieve total sanitation in RESA;Plan RESA ins searched of cost effective, fast and sustainable approaches for accelerating sanitation work;Came across CLTS-Origins in Bangladesh and tried with documented positive results in South East Asia seemed promising;Plan decided to adopt CLTS as the major approach for sanitation promotion.
14 CLTS Timeline in KenyaFeb 2007: RESA training for 38 participants in Tz-3 participants from KenyaMay 2007: Plan Kenya Management decides to pilot CLTS in Nyanza, Coast and Eastern regionsJuly 2007: CLTS training and triggering in (Arujo village Homa Bay and Jaribuni village KilifiSept/Oct. 2007: Training and triggering Tharaka Machakos and Kisumu PUsOct. 2007: First village (Jaribuni) attains ODF statusDec. 2007: Training and triggering of CLTS in Bondo and Siaya PUs
15 CLTS Timeline cont’dFeb. 08: UKNO/DFID CLTS grant (50,000US$ for Kenya)start-up;Mar.08: Plan/IDS AfricaSan CLTS pre- conference workshop;Apr.08: Sharing UNICEF regional workshopMay 08: MOH/PH CLTS training and triggering in Kilifi;June 08: Program conference parallel start-up workshop and the plenary session with Robert;July 08: RESA CLTS training in Kilifi;
16 CLTS Timeline continued Aug. 08: ODF verification exercise of 20 villages of Siaya district (near Kogelo);Oct. 08: UNICEF/MoPH&S Training in KisumuNov. 08: World Toilet Week events including the training in Kwale;Dec. 08: AfricaSan Durban IDS/Plan pre- conference CLTS session;Mar. 09: CLTS Africa sharing event in Kilifi;
17 AchievementsTrained over 600 practitioners (MoPH&S, UNICEF, NGOs, CBOs, local leaders and youth);Kilifi became the learning centre early ODF status;Over 860 villages in various parts of the country have been triggered & are at different stages towards ODF ;To date 146 villages have been declared ODF, in Coast (Kilifi) and Nyanza (Homabay);Adoption of CLTS for Rural sanitation by MoPHS- annual targets/CLTS coordination;Increased Interest and demand for CLTS-training and support
18 AchievementsChange in mindsets & leading to collective action =Increased coverage & use: Kilifi from 30% to 48% between May 2008-June 2010, Homa Bay- 66 triggered 29 ODF and Busia- 380 triggered 56 ODFWorld Toilet Day celebrated to mark ODF for the past 3 yearsMedia buy-in and coverage e.g. partnership with KBC series of “Vitimbi”;Networks and partnerships on CLTS have emerged;Children and youth participation in CLTS-School-Led Total Sanitation;Funding for CLTS, scaling-up, capacity building, advocacy research & documentation (e.g. DGIS/Plan Netherlands 8.5 million Euro in 8 African Countries;CLTS moving from Rural to Urban and to Schools;Establishment of a CLTS unit within Plan Kenya- responding demandsSystematic documentation of CLTS experiences – PLA CLTS Issue, “Tales of Shit in Africa”
20 ChallengesUptake slow/not the same in the different regions Plan Kenya works;Conflicting approaches by different agencies in the sanitation sector.The allowance culture: Some are in it for the out of pocket-not passionate or committed;Doubt and scepticism among sanitation professionalsLack of willingness to let go our professionalism-wanting the communities to start at the top of the ladder;Weak M&E and reporting within the mandated institutions;
21 Challenges – cont’dDependency syndrome in some areas emanating from previous approaches;Finding good facilitators: Not all trained find it easy and/or develop the passion to take up the CLTS challenges;Triggering without adequate mechanisms for follow-up and support;Inadequate support and mentoring of natural leaders;Private sector inability to come-up with affordable technological innovations-dependency!CLTS health outcomes/Impact research of CLTS intervention on diarrhea control and reduction in child mortality?
22 Citizen Led Total Sanitation –Urban CLTS FutureCitizen Led Total Sanitation –Urban CLTSPolitics and governance of urban sanitationLand tenureCity planningTenancy standardsHarnessing ICT4DMobile/GIS mappingPartnership with Map KiberaNext Map MathareSanitation Marketing/Sanitation Financing-what options for urban informal settlements and small towns
24 Achievements-Triggered plus spill over in Kilifi District (May -2008-June 2010 DivisionNo. VillagesVillages triggeredNo. ODF villagesVillages below 50%Villages above 50%Latrine coverageKikambala8695451%Chonyi57771.9%Bahari108181363.1%Jaribuni341851.5%Ganze260.7%Vitengeni18170175360%Bamba871514%District610141358848.5
25 Kilifi District Latrine Coverage By Division Pop.HHHH with latrines as at 1st July 10Latrine coverage (1 st July 10)HH with new latrinesHH with latrines at 31st …2010)% Cov. ForAug201 0Chonyi572348776636672.523640673Bahari121198174581068661.21071101663.1Kikambala15736520707894243.230902443.58Ganze210093047178558.634184960.7Bamba5275213795188113.67193014Vitengeni639987326368750.3525421657.5Jaribuni181172497125250.19128751.5District4916747360634599477353572848.5