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Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) & Challenges

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Presentation on theme: "Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) & Challenges"— Presentation transcript:

1 Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) & Challenges
Plan Kenya Experiences, Achievements, Challenges Regional Water & Sanitation Workshop Fairview Hotel – Nairobi (18th – 21st Oct. 2010)

2 Plan International: Who we are
Plan is an international humanitarian, child centered, development organization, without religious, political or governmental affiliation; Plan’s vision is of a world in which all children realize their full potential in societies that respect people’s rights and dignity; 75 Years of Existence; 48 Program Countries (13 in ESA Region) In since Kenya 1982 (28yrs)

3 Plan Kenya: Where we Work

4 Country Goal & Programs
Country Goal: Transformed Institutions & Societies That Respect and Fulfil Rights of All Children in Kenya. Country Programs: Right to Health [includes Water & Sanitation] Quality Basic Education Inclusion & Protection Sustainable and Dignified Livelihoods Just and Democratic Governance

5 Plan Kenya & Others: Long History of Latrine Subsidies

6 Let’s Talk About?

7 What is CLTS? Community-Led Total Sanitation
A “Participatory and Learning Action” approach based on stimulating a collective sense of disgust, shame and fear among community members as they confront the crude reality about mass open defecation [environmental contamination] and its negative effects on the entire community.

8 Underlying Assumptions of CLTS
No one can stay unmoved once they discover they are ingesting other people’s or their own faeces; High sense of shame and disgust hold the power to ignite people to take action and use their resources (not subsidy) to stop open defecation and be totally sanitised;

9 CLTS is Community-led: They lead and everyone in the community is involved; Total: 100% elimination of open defecation & practice of good hygiene; Sanitation: Beyond construction of toilet; Collective action: Often locally decided and not dependent on external subsidies and prescriptions of solutions.

10 CLTS: Sequence of Key Steps
Pre-triggering: buy-in, selection of sites, training, introduction and building rapport; Triggering: Sanitation profile –mapping- calculation of quantities-transect walk- flow- channels-effects-costs-ignition moment-action planning; Post-triggering: implementation of Action plans, follow-up, monitoring and documentation. Scaling up: Going beyond CLTS…what next?

11 Some Photos

12 Triggering Responses Triggering produces different responses
Damp match box Matchbox in a gas station Scattered sparks Promising flames

13 Background to CLTS in Kenya
With previous pace and approaches, it would take >100 years and >$30 billion to achieve total sanitation in RESA; Plan RESA ins searched of cost effective, fast and sustainable approaches for accelerating sanitation work; Came across CLTS-Origins in Bangladesh and tried with documented positive results in South East Asia seemed promising; Plan decided to adopt CLTS as the major approach for sanitation promotion.

14 CLTS Timeline in Kenya Feb 2007: RESA training for 38 participants in Tz-3 participants from Kenya May 2007: Plan Kenya Management decides to pilot CLTS in Nyanza, Coast and Eastern regions July 2007: CLTS training and triggering in (Arujo village Homa Bay and Jaribuni village Kilifi Sept/Oct. 2007: Training and triggering Tharaka Machakos and Kisumu PUs Oct. 2007: First village (Jaribuni) attains ODF status Dec. 2007: Training and triggering of CLTS in Bondo and Siaya PUs

15 CLTS Timeline cont’d Feb. 08: UKNO/DFID CLTS grant (50,000US$ for Kenya)start-up; Mar.08: Plan/IDS AfricaSan CLTS pre- conference workshop; Apr.08: Sharing UNICEF regional workshop May 08: MOH/PH CLTS training and triggering in Kilifi; June 08: Program conference parallel start-up workshop and the plenary session with Robert; July 08: RESA CLTS training in Kilifi;

16 CLTS Timeline continued
Aug. 08: ODF verification exercise of 20 villages of Siaya district (near Kogelo); Oct. 08: UNICEF/MoPH&S Training in Kisumu Nov. 08: World Toilet Week events including the training in Kwale; Dec. 08: AfricaSan Durban IDS/Plan pre- conference CLTS session; Mar. 09: CLTS Africa sharing event in Kilifi;

17 Achievements Trained over 600 practitioners (MoPH&S, UNICEF, NGOs, CBOs, local leaders and youth); Kilifi became the learning centre early ODF status; Over 860 villages in various parts of the country have been triggered & are at different stages towards ODF ; To date 146 villages have been declared ODF, in Coast (Kilifi) and Nyanza (Homabay); Adoption of CLTS for Rural sanitation by MoPHS- annual targets/CLTS coordination; Increased Interest and demand for CLTS-training and support

18 Achievements Change in mindsets & leading to collective action =Increased coverage & use: Kilifi from 30% to 48% between May 2008-June 2010, Homa Bay- 66 triggered 29 ODF and Busia- 380 triggered 56 ODF World Toilet Day celebrated to mark ODF for the past 3 years Media buy-in and coverage e.g. partnership with KBC series of “Vitimbi”; Networks and partnerships on CLTS have emerged; Children and youth participation in CLTS-School-Led Total Sanitation; Funding for CLTS, scaling-up, capacity building, advocacy research & documentation (e.g. DGIS/Plan Netherlands 8.5 million Euro in 8 African Countries; CLTS moving from Rural to Urban and to Schools; Establishment of a CLTS unit within Plan Kenya- responding demands Systematic documentation of CLTS experiences – PLA CLTS Issue, “Tales of Shit in Africa”

19 ODF

20 Challenges Uptake slow/not the same in the different regions Plan Kenya works; Conflicting approaches by different agencies in the sanitation sector. The allowance culture: Some are in it for the out of pocket-not passionate or committed; Doubt and scepticism among sanitation professionals Lack of willingness to let go our professionalism-wanting the communities to start at the top of the ladder; Weak M&E and reporting within the mandated institutions;

21 Challenges – cont’d Dependency syndrome in some areas emanating from previous approaches; Finding good facilitators: Not all trained find it easy and/or develop the passion to take up the CLTS challenges; Triggering without adequate mechanisms for follow-up and support; Inadequate support and mentoring of natural leaders; Private sector inability to come-up with affordable technological innovations-dependency! CLTS health outcomes/Impact research of CLTS intervention on diarrhea control and reduction in child mortality?

22 Citizen Led Total Sanitation –Urban CLTS
Future Citizen Led Total Sanitation –Urban CLTS Politics and governance of urban sanitation Land tenure City planning Tenancy standards Harnessing ICT4D Mobile/GIS mapping Partnership with Map Kibera Next Map Mathare Sanitation Marketing/Sanitation Financing-what options for urban informal settlements and small towns

23 Many Designs

24 Achievements-Triggered plus spill over in Kilifi District (May -2008-June 2010
Division No. Villages Villages triggered No. ODF villages Villages below 50% Villages above 50% Latrine coverage Kikambala 86 9 5 4 51% Chonyi 57 7 71.9% Bahari 108 18 13 63.1% Jaribuni 34 1 8 51.5% Ganze 2 60.7% Vitengeni 181 70 17 53 60% Bamba 87 15 14% District 610 141 35 88 48.5

25 Kilifi District Latrine Coverage By Division
Pop. HH HH with latrines as at 1st July 10 Latrine coverage (1 st July 10) HH with new latrines HH with latrines at 31st …2010) % Cov. ForAug201 0 Chonyi 57234 8776 6366 72.5 23 6406 73 Bahari 121198 17458 10686 61.2 107 11016 63.1 Kikambala 157365 20707 8942 43.2 30 9024 43.58 Ganze 21009 3047 1785 58.6 34 1849 60.7 Bamba 52752 13795 1881 13.6 7 1930 14 Vitengeni 63998 7326 3687 50.3 525 4216 57.5 Jaribuni 18117 2497 1252 50.1 9 1287 51.5 District 491674 73606 34599 47 735 35728 48.5


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