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Plan © Plan Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) & Challenges Plan Kenya Experiences, Achievements, Challenges Regional Water & Sanitation Workshop Fairview Hotel – Nairobi (18 th – 21st Oct. 2010)
© Plan Plan International: Who we are Plan is an international humanitarian, child centered, development organization, without religious, political or governmental affiliation; Plans vision is of a world in which all children realize their full potential in societies that respect peoples rights and dignity; 75 Years of Existence; 48 Program Countries (13 in ESA Region) In since Kenya 1982 (28yrs)
© Plan Plan Kenya: Where we Work
© Plan Country Goal & Programs Country Goal: Transformed Institutions & Societies That Respect and Fulfil Rights of All Children in Kenya. Country Programs: Right to Health [includes Water & Sanitation] Quality Basic Education Inclusion & Protection Sustainable and Dignified Livelihoods Just and Democratic Governance
© Plan Plan Kenya & Others: Long History of Latrine Subsidies
© Plan Lets Talk About?
© Plan What is CLTS? Community-Led Total Sanitation A Participatory and Learning Action approach based on stimulating a collective sense of disgust, shame and fear among community members as they confront the crude reality about mass open defecation [environmental contamination] and its negative effects on the entire community.
© Plan Underlying Assumptions of CLTS No one can stay unmoved once they discover they are ingesting other peoples or their own faeces; High sense of shame and disgust hold the power to ignite people to take action and use their resources (not subsidy) to stop open defecation and be totally sanitised;
© Plan CLTS is Community-led: They lead and everyone in the community is involved; Total: 100% elimination of open defecation & practice of good hygiene; Sanitation: Beyond construction of toilet; Collective action: Often locally decided and not dependent on external subsidies and prescriptions of solutions.
© Plan CLTS: Sequence of Key Steps Pre-triggering: buy-in, selection of sites, training, introduction and building rapport; Triggering: Sanitation profile –mapping- calculation of quantities-transect walk- flow- channels-effects-costs-ignition moment-action planning; Post-triggering: implementation of Action plans, follow-up, monitoring and documentation. Scaling up: Going beyond CLTS…what next?
© Plan Some Photos
© Plan Triggering Responses Matchbox in a gas station Promising flames Scattered sparks Damp match box Triggering produces different responses
© Plan Background to CLTS in Kenya With previous pace and approaches, it would take >100 years and >$30 billion to achieve total sanitation in RESA; Plan RESA ins searched of cost effective, fast and sustainable approaches for accelerating sanitation work; Came across CLTS-Origins in Bangladesh and tried with documented positive results in South East Asia seemed promising; Plan decided to adopt CLTS as the major approach for sanitation promotion.
© Plan CLTS Timeline in Kenya Feb 2007: RESA training for 38 participants in Tz-3 participants from Kenya May 2007: Plan Kenya Management decides to pilot CLTS in Nyanza, Coast and Eastern regions July 2007: CLTS training and triggering in (Arujo village Homa Bay and Jaribuni village Kilifi Sept/Oct. 2007: Training and triggering Tharaka Machakos and Kisumu PUs Oct. 2007: First village (Jaribuni) attains ODF status Dec. 2007: Training and triggering of CLTS in Bondo and Siaya PUs
© Plan CLTS Timeline contd Feb. 08: UKNO/DFID CLTS grant (50,000US$ for Kenya)start-up; Mar.08: Plan/IDS AfricaSan CLTS pre- conference workshop; Apr.08: Sharing UNICEF regional workshop May 08: MOH/PH CLTS training and triggering in Kilifi; June 08: Program conference parallel start-up workshop and the plenary session with Robert; July 08: RESA CLTS training in Kilifi;
© Plan CLTS Timeline continued Aug. 08: ODF verification exercise of 20 villages of Siaya district (near Kogelo); Oct. 08: UNICEF/MoPH&S Training in Kisumu Nov. 08: World Toilet Week events including the training in Kwale; Dec. 08: AfricaSan Durban IDS/Plan pre- conference CLTS session; Mar. 09: CLTS Africa sharing event in Kilifi;
© Plan Achievements Trained over 600 practitioners (MoPH&S, UNICEF, NGOs, CBOs, local leaders and youth); Kilifi became the learning centre early ODF status; Over 860 villages in various parts of the country have been triggered & are at different stages towards ODF ; To date 146 villages have been declared ODF, in Coast (Kilifi) and Nyanza (Homabay); Adoption of CLTS for Rural sanitation by MoPHS- annual targets/CLTS coordination; Increased Interest and demand for CLTS-training and support
© Plan Achievements Change in mindsets & leading to collective action =Increased coverage & use: Kilifi from 30% to 48% between May 2008-June 2010, Homa Bay- 66 triggered 29 ODF and Busia- 380 triggered 56 ODF World Toilet Day celebrated to mark ODF for the past 3 years Media buy-in and coverage e.g. partnership with KBC series of Vitimbi; Networks and partnerships on CLTS have emerged; Children and youth participation in CLTS-School-Led Total Sanitation; Funding for CLTS, scaling-up, capacity building, advocacy research & documentation (e.g. DGIS/Plan Netherlands 8.5 million Euro in 8 African Countries; CLTS moving from Rural to Urban and to Schools; Establishment of a CLTS unit within Plan Kenya- responding demands Systematic documentation of CLTS experiences – PLA CLTS Issue, Tales of Shit in Africa
© Plan ODF
© Plan Challenges Uptake slow/not the same in the different regions Plan Kenya works; Conflicting approaches by different agencies in the sanitation sector. The allowance culture: Some are in it for the out of pocket-not passionate or committed; Doubt and scepticism among sanitation professionals Lack of willingness to let go our professionalism-wanting the communities to start at the top of the ladder; Weak M&E and reporting within the mandated institutions;
© Plan Challenges – contd Dependency syndrome in some areas emanating from previous approaches; Finding good facilitators: Not all trained find it easy and/or develop the passion to take up the CLTS challenges; Triggering without adequate mechanisms for follow-up and support; Inadequate support and mentoring of natural leaders; Private sector inability to come-up with affordable technological innovations-dependency! CLTS health outcomes/Impact research of CLTS intervention on diarrhea control and reduction in child mortality?
© Plan Future Citizen Led Total Sanitation –Urban CLTS Politics and governance of urban sanitation Land tenure City planning Tenancy standards Harnessing ICT4D Mobile/GIS mapping Partnership with Map Kibera Next Map Mathare Sanitation Marketing/Sanitation Financing-what options for urban informal settlements and small towns
© Plan Many Designs
© Plan Achievements-Triggered plus spill over in Kilifi District (May June 2010 Division No. Villages Villages triggered No. ODF villages Villages below 50% Villages above 50% Latrine coverage Kikambala % Chonyi % Bahari % Jaribuni % Ganze % Vitengeni % Bamba % District
© Plan DivisionPop. HH HH with latrines as at 1 st July 10 Latrine coverage (1 st July 10) HH with new latrines HH with latrines at 31 st …2010) % Cov. ForAug201 0 Chonyi Bahari Kikambala Ganze Bamba Vitengeni Jaribuni District Kilifi District Latrine Coverage By Division
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