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Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Principles Wim Devos

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1 Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Principles Wim Devos

2 Outline Introduction to GIS Coordinates: SRS-CRS
Spatial data and formats Data, maps and scales Spatial databases Integration of spatial information GIS programs and functionality GIS in the CAP information management GIS – trends and future INSPIRE

3 Definition GIS = computer-based information systems for Management Analysis Visualization of geographical (spatial) data

4 Introduction to GIS (2) GIS is NOT (only) Computer Cartography
GIS has a data-centered approach map = representation of spatial data not a simple drawing Spatial data relate to a position/space on earth or in space either by description: “BRU L170” or by having coordinates: “31 U E h 64”  GIS processes coordinates

DATUMS: define location a "geodetic datum" is defined by size and shape of ellipsoïde (a en 1/f) location of the ellipsoïde relative to the centre of gravity (ΔX, ΔY, ΔZ) orientation of the 3 major Axes relative to a reference system fixed to earth : ωX,,ωY,ωZ scale factor S national datums: Horizontal (xy) en Vertical (h) Some geodetic datums and ellipsoids Geodetic Datum Ellipsoid a 1/f Belgian Hayford 297 WGS84 ETRS89 IAG GRS 1980

PLANAR COORDINATES; CRS from “projecting” the earth’s 3D surface to a 2D plane  CRS Always creating distortions so projection systems Conformal (respect angles) Equidistant (respect scale) Equal area (respect areas) NOTE Geographic GRID coordinates (longitude, latitude) are also in a particular CRS Some CRS CRS Datum Type coverage UTM1-UTM60 WGS84 Cylindrical, conformal world Lambert II Nouvelle Triangulation Francaise Conical conformal Central France Eurolambert European Datum 1950 National France

SRS knowledge is critical for coordination or database integration, e.g. GPS: is raw WGS84 Google Earth: uses UTM/geographic LPIS will always be in national CRS (MS know only theirs!) E.g orthorectification of VHR involves 4 data sets (map/DEM/GCP/raw image) To document SRS INSPIRE and GML: document via EPSG-code Or ArcINFO: WKT *.prj (Well Known Text) Nice tool: Many online coordinate conversion tools national CRS><UTM

8 Vector Data Types the “easy” past:
Points e.g. settlements Lines e.g. rivers Polygons e.g. cadastral parcels 2013: called “simple features” : GM_point, GM_polyline, GM_polygon

9 Raster Data Types Image data e.g. orthorectified satellite images,
“sensed’ value spectral intensity, vibration, elapsed time Gridded data e.g. digital elevation models categorical information “derived” information 2013: many representations and formats

10 Vector vs Raster Vector data Raster Data
Shapefile (*.shp, *.dbf, *.shx) ArcInfo Coverage EC- exchange: Geographic Markup Language GML Raster Data formats: JPEG2000, TIFF (*.tif) several proprietary formats of platforms CID- exchange: Geotiff/ Tiff with wkt.prj ECW (Enhanced Compression Wavelet) Erdas HFA (Hierarchical File Architecture )

11 Maps scale vs data accuracy
Spatial data have no scale but a certain positional accuracy e.g.: well know points ≈ ( mm x paper map scale) + digitizing error Spatial data have a scale range for appropriate map display Beware: small scale —— large scale 1:10’000’000 —— 1:1’000 large territory —— small territory

12 Map scales Italy: Provinces Scale 1:2’000’000
Province: Communes Scale 1:100’000 Communes: Cadastre Scale 1:5’000

13 Spatial Databases Spatial data contain geometry AND attribute information Classical approach: file-based databases (e.g. shapefiles, ‘coverages’) Modern approach: business databases with spatial extension (e.g. Oracle Spatial, Esri SDE, PostGIS, Postgresql for JRC LPISQA portal) To exchange data between databases: attribute tables: XML (Extensible Markup Language) spatial tables: GML (i.e. XML dialect for SRS+ coordinates)

14 Spatial Databases (2) There is an obvious connection between geometry and attribute information in spatial databases (e.g. ArcView GIS)

15 Integration of Spatial Information
Integration of GPS measurements Spatial datasets (raster and vector) can be combined for analysis and map overlay Data typically loaded in GIS programs as thematic LAYERS (= “themes”) Note: layers are just implementation , should never be considered conceptually

16 Layer overlay Orthophoto Cadastral Parcels Roads Rivers

17 GIS software Many variables Non-european >< non-european
Open source >< proprietary Desktop >< server-client. A dominant player for our community = ESRI with ArcView, ArcGIS, ArcMap Take a pick: For LPIS + IACS: SW must be customized

18 GIS Functionality 1 Display of data (ex. ArcView)
Note: all display except pen plotter is raster!

19 GIS Functionality 2 Interactive data query (ex. ArcView)

20 GIS Functionality 3 Data management (ex. ArcInfo)
Digitize new features Modify existing data

21 Advantages of GIS in the CAP for information management
extends alphanumeric databases with a geographical (spatial) component combines agricultural parcels and images (airborne or satellite) allows parcel identification and locating serves area measurements enables spatial analysis (overlay, vicinity, distance…) enables spatial query (what is there?) GIS enables other ways to collect/process data

22 Advantages of GIS in the CAP… (2)
Control with remote sensing

23 GIS – Trends and Future WebGIS: GIS in browsers
gradually replacing desktop GIS for browsing and querying of spatial data public access to geo-data Crowd sourcing (google earth) OGC (open geospatial consortium): Integration from different sources via open standards  TC211/ISO19100 series MobileGIS: GIS on hand-held devices, cellular phones Apps could be the future! INSPIRE: European GIS legislation

24 Online LPIS viewers BE-Fl: (select “oefen e-loket” and “login in > Een aanvraag invullen > Verzamelaanvraag > via “kaart”) CZ: EE: (select the Kaardikihid tab) ES: FR: (select “usages des sols” > ”ilots de 200x”) HU: (select the tab "Belépés a MePAR böngészőbe", select an area> select an item> tick Blokk2010) SI: DE-NS DE-SH SK: Candidate Countries: HR: MK:

25 INSPIRE Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE)

26 provisions INSPIRE lays down general rules to establish an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe for the purposes of Community environmental policies and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment.  SMR, GAEC and AEM!! This infrastructure shall build upon infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the Member States: INSPIRE does not require collection of new spatial data – electronic format INSPIRE does not affect Intellectual Property Rights Implementation phase completes by 2013

27 Relevant data From whom? - Spatial data held by or on behalf of a public authority operating down to the lowest level of government when laws or regulations require their collection or dissemination What content? - INSPIRE covers 34 Spatial Data Themes laid down in 3 Annexes – (required to successfully build environmental information systems) 28 March 2017

28 Data scope 1 Annex I Coordinate reference systems Geographical grid systems Geographical names Administrative units Addresses Cadastral parcels Transport networks Hydrography Protected sites Annex II Elevation Land cover Ortho-imagery Geology Harmonised spatial data specifications more stringent for Annex I and II than for Annex III

29 Data scope 2 Annex III Statistical units Buildings Soil Land use Human health and safety Utility and governmental services Environmental monitoring facilities Production and industrial facilities Agricultural and aquaculture facilities Population distribution – demography Area management/restriction /regulation zones & reporting units Natural risk zones Atmospheric conditions Meteorological geographical features Oceanographic geographical features Sea regions Bio-geographical regions Habitats and biotopes Species distribution Energy Resources Mineral resources

30 Components Metadata Interoperability of spatial data sets and services
MS shall create metadata and keep them up to date Interoperability of spatial data sets and services Rules for interoperability and where practical for harmonisation of spatial data sets and services Network services MS shall operate discovery, view, download, transformation and invoke services Data and Service sharing (policy) Coordination and measures for Monitoring & Reporting INSPIRE is a Framework Directive, detailed technical provisions for the issues above laid down in Implementing Rules (IR)

31 Data and service sharing
without use restrictions between public authorities for public tasks relating to the environment charging and licensing to each other and to Community institutions shall not create an obstacle no charging to Community institutions for reporting obligations under Community law relating to the environment in accordance with harmonised conditions.

32 INSPIRE and LPIS LPIS is an operational, regulatory based, EU wide dataset, a large scale, parcel-based register with land use and land cover data, predating INSPIRE BUT not an explicit INSPIRE annex theme / DS2.3 dataset on itself, despite many dependencies on INSPIRE themes: cadastre, topography, land cover ≈ Reference Parcel land use, orthophotos ≈ Agricultural Parcel soil data, elevation, hydrology, restriction/regulation zones ≈ cross-compliance ≈ green payment CONCLUSION Synergy from technology, harmonisation and access MS CAP administrations should be the prime beneficiary of INSPIRE Since 2011: weekly requests for pan-European access to LPIS

33 audits anno 2013? geocoded photographs tracks of GNSS remeasurement

34 Overall conclusion GIS: is a well documented concept
offers clear benefits covers a wide range of application fields is supported by very dynamic technology has many market players became highly standardized (including specific EU legislation) Coincidence it is in art 17 of Council Regulation (EC) no 73/2009? Shouldn’t it be more common in DGAgri operations?

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