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Portuguese foreseen methodology for Arts and 3

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1 Portuguese foreseen methodology for Arts. 3. 3 and 3
Portuguese foreseen methodology for Arts. 3.3 and 3.4 quantification under the Kyoto Protocol “Technical workshop on LULUCF reporting issues under the Kyoto Protocol” 13-14 November, Ispra

2 List of Authors LULUCF (CRF 5) Teresa Costa Pereira, APA
Inês Mourão, APA/Ecoprogresso Mário Caetano, IGP Maria Conceição Ferreira, AFN José Paulino, GPP/MADRP Maria Conceição Pereira, IGP Helena Ramos, IFAP Paula Soares, AFN/ISA Ricardo Teixeira, IST Rui Teixeira, MADRP/LQARS Margarida Tomé, AFN/ISA

3 List of Entities LULUCF (CRF 5)
APAmbiente (ex-IA) – Portuguese Agency for the Environment MADRP - Ministry of Agriculture/ Ministério da Agricultura, do Desenvolvimento Rural e das Pescas GPP – Gabinete de Planeamento e Políticas AFN - Forestry National Authority/ Autoridade Florestal Nacional estais/MADRP IFAP (ex-INGA) - Instituto Financiamento Agrícola e Pescas LQARS - Laboratório Químico Agrícola Rebelo da Silva ISA - Instituto Superior de Agronomia / Technical University of Lisbon IGP - Geographical Institute/ Instituto Geográfico Português IST – Instituto Superior Técnico/ Technical University of Lisbon UE – Universidade de Évora Ecoprogresso InventAr

4 LULUCF (CRF 5) Overview Units of land identification
SNIERPA: PT National System PT Initial Report Units of land identification Forest included in 3.4 GM/CM (hierarchy rules) Cartographic products and additional information Land Use Maps (COS) Identification of 3.4 areas Annual monitoring of forest fires and clear cuts Carbon in soil Pilot study for defining and testing reporting methodology under UNFCCC and KP

5 SNIERPA – PT National System
LULUCF (CRF 5) No previous Reference to Art. 7.1 of KP Inclusion of 3.3 and 3.4 activities on SNIERPA through a MoU concerning Design, test and implementation of the methodology and responsibilities’ sharing in data gathering (including QA/QC to data producers/products) SNIERPA including Arts. 3.3 and 3.4 Single Responsible Entity: produces the Inventory Focal Points: Co-operate in Methodological Development and Data Gathering Involved Entities: Public or private entities which generate or hold information Experts Focal Points Responsible Entity Involved Entities Experts InventAr Estudos e Projectos Unip Lda INERPA Art. 3.3 & 3.4 SNIERPA/Art. 3.3 and 3.4 Working Group

6 LULUCF (CRF 5) PT Initial Report Forest Definition
Minimum area: 1 ha, consistent with LU/LUC cartography (FAO 0,5 ha) Minimum width: 20 m Tree crown cover: 10% Minimum tree height: 5 m Additional Activities under 3.4 FM - Forest Management – all forest is managed CM - Cropland Management GM - Grazing Land Management Accounting 3.3 & 3.4 At end of 1st Commitment Period

7 Cartographic products and additional information
1st Kyoto Protocol Commitment period Base year 1990 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 COS 1990 COS 2007 COS 2010 Annual cartography of burnt areas Monitoring of clear cuts and new forest plantations Additional DB: e.g. agro-environmental incentives

8 Units of land identification – 3.3 and 3.4 FM
LULUCF (CRF 5) Methodology envisaged - COS90 vs COS07 vs COS10/11: LU/LUC Cartography based on aerial images. Minimum mapping unit: 1 ha; minimum distance between lines: 20 m COS90 F in 1990 COS07 F areas at the beginning of the commitment period (CP) F and D areas since 1990 COS90 vs COS07 LUC – yearly rates COS10/11 F and D areas since the beginning of the CP Changes in FM areas: surface and species during the CP COS07 vs COS10/11 LUC CP – yearly rates Additional Information Annual detection of fires, clear cuts and new plantations Biomass – deforestation, harvesting and fires Stocks, age from NFI (Plots) Biomass increment Growth rates: NFI + Forest simulators (ISA) New forest plantations (FEADER) agro-environmental incentives DB units of land monitored annually; 5 years) COS05/07: anouncement for public competition has been published (this month I think) in the European OJ COS totally covers IPCC area classification

9 Units of land identification – 3.4 CM+GM
LULUCF (CRF 5) Two tier methodology Level Detail A - for Specific C Management Activities No tillage; Sown biodiverse permanent grasslands Methodology: georeferenced DB on agro-environmental incentives under FEADER and other CAP support schemes (obtained from IFAP – Portuguese CAP payment agency) Annual identification of land units Land units continually tracked Identification of the beginning of the activity Level Detail B – “Non-Managed” Areas Remaining Agriculture and Grassland areas Methodology Detection of change in land use according to COS classes types Soil carbon in equilibrium 9

10 Forest included in 3.4 GM/CM (hierarchy rules)
LULUCF (CRF 5) Agro-forestry systems (Montado) classified under CM or GM Carbon stock changes result from changes in agricultural practices in understorey Tree system is in equilibrium (Dominant Mature trees) 10

11 Land Use Map (COS) (IGP)
Technical specifications Nomenclature Generalization rules Production Aerial images (50 cm) Land use map 2007

12 COS 2007 (IGP) Ortho-images characteristics Owner IGP Camera
Ultracam, Vexcel (North) + DMC, Intergraph (South) Flight altitude Approx m Image format Tiff Area covered 4 x 5 Km Spatial resolution 0,5 m Radiometric resolution 8 bits 4 Bands Blue, Green, Red and NIR Reference system ETRS89 / PT-TM06 Image dates July – August 2007 (North) July – November 2007 (South)

13 COS: Production method (IGP)
Computer assisted visual interpretation

14 COS2007 Technical specifications (IGP)
Data model and structure Vector (polygon) Minimum mapping unit (MMU) 1 ha Minimum distance between lines 20 m Minimum distance between polygons Projection Transverse Mercator Reference system ETRS89/PT-TM06 Ellipsoid GRS80 Nomenclature COS2007 Thematic accuracy >= 85% Positional accuracy >= 5.5 m (

15 - COS2007 Nomenclature Level 1 Detail + Level 2
The COS2007 nomenclature classifies both land cover and land use It is a 5 level hierarchical nomenclature with 192 classes at its most detail COS 2007 nomenclature was developed to allow compatibility with the six IPCC land-use categories (GPG ch.2, pp. 2.6) This was done in the framework of an advisory committee that was established to contribute in the definition of COS2007 nomenclature. This committee involved all relevant public and private entities and end-users of the cartography, including SNIERPA representatives Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Detail (5 classes) (15 classes) (43 classes) (92 classes) (192 classes) + -

16 COS2007 Nomenclature vs IPCC categories

17 Identification of 3.4 areas
LULUCF (CRF 5) Annual crops (irrigated, non irrigated, rice) Permanent crops (vineyards, orchards, olive groves) Annual crops and/or pastures associated to permanent crops Complex cultivation patterns (mixed parcels of annual crops and permanent crops) Agro-forestry areas (forests with irrigated, non irrigated or permanent crops as understorey) CROPLAND MANAGEMENT Pastures Agro-forestry areas (forests with pastures as understorey) Natural grasslands GRAZING LAND MANAGEMENT Forests (>30% cover broadleaved, needleleaved, mixed forests) Transitional woodland/shurb (10-30% cover forests, clear-cuts, new plantations) FOREST MANAGEMENT 17

18 Annual Monitoring of Forest Fires
LULUCF (CRF 5) Cartography of Burnt Areas in Portuguese Mainland AFN is the national authority for forestry and is also designated for the elaboration of the official cartography of burnt areas Cartographic methods Identification in the office or in the field in military map or orthophotomap Field identification with GPS Analysis through satellite image (MODIS and LANDSAT) Besides field surveys, that include only a minor number of annual occurrences, AFN has a cartographic series of the burnt areas, identified using LANDSAT, that starts in 1984 and covers all the Portuguese Mainland The detail of the satellite images has allowed to reduce the cartography minimal area to 5 ha (in 1990 the minimal area was 25 ha)

19 Annual Monitoring of Forest Fires
LULUCF (CRF 5) The forest fires that have areas superior to 5 ha are responsible for the major part of the burnt area The fires with minor areas are a common phenomena in urban-forestry interfaces in north and centre littoral

20 Monitoring of clear-cuts
LULUCF (CRF 5) AGRO 130 Project remote sensing images to automatically map clear cuts and new forest plantations Consortium: IGP+AFN Project Concluded Objectives Test/demonstrate the use of satellite image (LandSat 7 ETM; IKONOS) for the detection of clear-cuts areas and new plantations Status Testing in restricted areas at regional and local level Expansion to full scale monitoring project to be decided (

21 Can we visually distinguish the changes, and automatically?
AGRO130 – remote sensing to automatically map clear cuts and new forest plantations Objectives: Demonstrate the usefulness of Landsat-5 TM and IKONOS images to produce clear cut and new forest plantations maps by automatic means for local and regional scales. Demonstrate the usefulness of monitoring clear cuts and new forest plantations for data base updates and decision making. Local scale Regional scale IKONOS 2004 IKONOS 2005 Landsat 2004 Landsat 2005 Can we visually distinguish the changes, and automatically? Images used to test the local and regional scale hypotheses

22 Clear cuts and new plantations
AGRO130 Methodology Simplified approach to the automatic change detection methodology NDVI difference Map Generalization Veg. Decrease 2005 Image Clear cuts and new plantations Classification Combine 2004 Image Classified Image

23 AGRO130 Results Users accuracy obtained in the change detection using Landsat e IKONOS images IKONOS Vegetation decrease at 0.5ha MMU Vegetation decrease at 5ha MMU Landsat 88,1% 71,4% No change Change Water

24 Forest Parameters and Models NFI (AFN)
LULUCF (CRF 5) Sampling Grids 500m x 500m – Photointerpretation ( points) 2km x 2km – Forest ( points) Determination of forestry points (12 258) - remote sensing using Landsat images 4km x 4km – Bush land Field validation of the plots identified above relating to forestry and bush land 24

25 Forest Parameters and Models NFI
LULUCF (CRF 5) Carbon stock Live biomass estimates available in the recent NFI 2005/06 (field work 2006): stem, branches, leaves estimated with allometric equations Growth rates (t.ha-1.y-1) Estimated with yield tables developed by Forest Regional Plans (PROFs – 21 regions) using existing growth models by specie Data analysis by PROF: Tables of biomass stock by main specie (P. pinaster, Eucalyptus sp., Q. suber) per age and region/PROF Tables with national averages for other species (Q. rotundifolia, Q. sp., C. sativa, and others) Litter and dead wood Data available for two pilot areas Root biomass data Limited data available (P. pinaster and E. globulus) AFN + APA + ISA 25

26 Carbon in Soil LULUCF (CRF 5) Expected outcomes
Replacement of IPCC defaults LUC – Climate; crops; soil original material LU constant – Soil carbon in equilibrium Data set available – LQARS (research Institution since 1886) ICP Forest Project (UNECE) Plots 16 x 16 km: forest + agriculture Same plots in 1997 and 2004 DB with soil characterization data most representative agricultural crops soil fertility trials and surveys (1986 to 2006) Studies for specific agriculture activities No-tillage (Carvalho e Basch) Sown biodiverse grasslands (Teixeira et al., 2008) AFN + LQARS + Portuguese Universities (IST and Évora University) 26

27 Carbon in Soil Soil organic matter series from 2001 to 2008 6 1 5 2 3
7 8 4 2 Soil organic matter series from 2001 to 2008 Teixeira, R., Domingos, T., Costa, A.P.S.V., Oliveira, R., Farropas, L., Calouro, F., Barradas, A.M., Carneiro, J.P.B.G. (2008). The dynamics of soil organic matter accumulation in Portuguese grasslands soils. Options Méditerranéennes – Sustainable Mediterranean Grasslands and Their Multi-Functions, A-79: 27

28 Carbon in Soil LULUCF (CRF 5)
Evaluation of C soil content according to cultivated crop and region Average values from 1986 to 2002 (great majority of the crops) 20 cm depth for annual crops (winter cereals, and maize) 20 cm and cm depth for perennial crops (olivegrove, vineyards, and apple and pear orchards) 10 cm depth for pastures The same sampling methods along the surveys EDP – Terraprima Contract Yearly monitoring of soil organic matter at 10 cm and 30 cm at >30 plots at Quinta da França and other Portuguese farms Research Project “Biopast” ( ) Micro-level study of soil organic matter dynamics at Quinta da França Continuation of the yearly soil organic matter time series from eight points in Portugal Analysis of soil analyses by project Extensity farms (> 50 farms implementing sown biodiverse pastures and no-tillage) IST+INIA (LQARS+EZN+ENMP) + ESAB (Escola Superior Agrária de Bragança) Evaluation of C analytical determination methods Relationships between dry combustion method and wet oxidation method (LQARS) 28

29 Pilot study for defining and testing reporting methodology under UNFCCC and KP
LULUCF (CRF 5) Alentejo region ( FM CM GM) Integrated CO2 emissions/removals quantification Objectives: verify methodology and parameters, using: LUC areas identification; test sampling and spatially explicit approaches intersection of different cartographic existing products and NFI data plots use of agro-environmental incentives georeferenced data base application of forest simulators for main species per age (P. pinaster, Eucalyptus, Q. suber) – in the pilot area only for Q. Suber quantification of soil C using the maximum available information from soil surveys evaluation of potential data gaps, main drawbacks and defining ways to solve eventual problems or further data needs proposal/choice of a concrete methodology for area identification and quantification of E/R fill in the KP tables using the results from the application of the methodology (2009 submission)

30 Pilot study for defining and testing reporting methodology under UNFCCC and KP (IGP)
LULUCF (CRF 5) Study Area: AMDE – Assoc. Municípios do Distrito de Évora 30

31 Pilot study: identification of areas in the 1st year - methodology (IGP)
Areas classified as: 3.3 D 3.3 A/R 3.4 FM 3.4 CM 3.4 GM 31

32 Pilot study COS 2007, COS90 and COS AMDE (IGP)
Main technical specifications of the different cartographies

33 Pilot Study Land-use change matrix from 1990 to 2004 (generalised) for COS’ major categories (IGP)

34 Pilot Study Transitions from 1990 to 2004 as percentage of the total area of each category in 2004 and total area and as percentage of the study area (IGP)

35 Pilot study – next steps from phase 1 recommendations (IGP)
Improvement of the correction of COS90: Refine the procedure since not all geometric errors were eliminated Conversion of the correction procedure into a fully automated one The correction algorithm will have to be calibrated in view of being extended to the whole country, namely through the use of other test areas particularly important for the North of the country, where more geometric problems are expected Revision of the integration of no-tillage data from 2004 and biodiverse pastures data from 2007, with COS AMDE referring to 2004. Overlay IFAP’s forestry projects’ database with the transitions to new plantations (class novas plantacões, code ) In order to know what forest species are present in the new plantations the database doesn’t cover all possible new plantations in Continental Portugal – dependent on the ability of WG 3.3/3.4 to get sufficient data

36 Pilot study – next steps from phase 1 recommendations (IGP)
Areas of Continental Portugal which are not covered by COS90 – 8% of the territory use COS based on Orthophotos from 1995, or use CLC90 (Corine Land Cover based on images from 85/86/87)

37 Pilot study – next steps phase 1 and 2 and recommendations (IGP)
Unlikely transitions and transitions that may result from different visual interpretations in COS90 and COS AMDE (COS2007 in the reporting) Determine the error that may be involved in these transitions since real land-use changes that may be included in these transitions, are not eliminated thematic accuracy of both COS90 and COS2007 will be known at the time of reporting thematic accuracy of COS2007 will be >= 85 % COS90 is envisaged to be further geometrically corrected, so less errors are expected in terms of land-use changes Independent validation of the whole methodology Phase 2: Simulation of land use and land-use change area estimation for reporting in the intermediate years of the KP commitment period in which COS will not be produced Yearly overlay of information related to disturbances Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses

38 Pilot study: next steps
LULUCF (CRF 5) Entities Tasks Month Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr GPP (/IST) Definition of the soil retention rate – managed areas GPP (/UARN-INIA-INRB) Definition of the soil retention rate – non-managed areas AFN Definition of the soil retention rate – forest areas IGP Overlay of COS90+AMDE+IFAP Concluded APA Determination of 3.3&3.4 areas AFN (/ISA) Biomass models – development of production tables by specie and class age IGP/AFN(/ISA) Biomass models – harvest, fires and new plantations IGP/AFN(/ISA?)/GPP(/IFAP) Overlay of geographical info with NFI Emissions/removals estimation 3.3&3.4 Application of QC/QA procedures Milestones EC’s Submissions 15 UNFCCC’s Submission 38

39 Overview LULUCF (CRF 5) Thank you!

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