Presentation on theme: "REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Overview of workshop 1 Cities of tomorrow: the challenges Corinne Hermant-de Callataÿ Christian."— Presentation transcript:
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Overview of workshop 1 Cities of tomorrow: the challenges Corinne Hermant-de Callataÿ Christian Svanfeldt (Urban Development and Territorial Cohesion Unit, Directorate-General Regional Policy)
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION William Hogarth, Gin Lane and Beer Street (1751) Source: Roey Sweet Looking backwards
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION European Priorities responding to global challenges European priorities: smart growth –skills, education, innovation inclusive growth –skills, jobs, flexicurity sustainable growth –productivity, green growth, low carbon economy Corresponding challenges globalisation, social polarisation, demographic change globalisation, climate change, energy Europe 2020
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Source: ISMERI Effects of the economic crisis (first results) Regions 2020 Pink: Metropolitan knowledge- intensive services regions Dark blue: Traditional Mediterranea n Europe Light blue: High- tech regions Source: ETEPS Effects of the economic crisis (first results) Red circle: worsening Globalisation vulnerability index, 2020 Top/low performing regions
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION …economic and social area …built-up and green living space …political community shrinkagedecline in demand, supply and attractiveness vacant buildings, rising costs, longer distances decline in revenues, political fiasco ageingreduced innovation, public service provision adaptation to the needs of seniors new priorities, decline in political participation increasing heterogeneity disparities, desintegration segregationpolitical exclusion, polarisation … as Challenges … as Challenges (source: Heinrich Mäding) The city as… Prof. Dr. Heinrich Mäding Demographic Changes
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION (Source: Jan Vranken) Has solidarity collapsed? The sociological problem lies in the (hypothesised) collapse of: traditional forms of solidarity, of routines that used to function as mediators, of (informal) mechanisms of social control a number of top-down initiatives to replace/complement from repressive (CCTV-controlled areas; adapt or leave attitudes; mono-cultural discourses; young offenders put in jail rather than re-educated) to protective (social protection, social services) ones. Hypothesis: due to the retrenching (welfare) state, civil society is needed to fill in the gaps that are left. The need to re-enter conflict into the (conceptual) equation? Urban Governance: part of solution or part of problem? Social challenges
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION RICH MIDDLE CLASS elderly Migrants MIDDLE CLASS Elderly POOR Spatial changes as challenge (source: Karel Maier) size of the change? significance of the change? less empirical (quantitative) evidence hypotheses, case studies towards ? central posh enclaves suburban satellites gated suburban enclaves compact city & garden suburbs housing estates dilapidated exclusion enclaves RICH IN-BETWEENS? MIDDLE CLASS? POOR
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Paris – St. Denis « Traditional planning tools are unfit to govern processes of urban transformation» (Alessandro Balducci) « The risk for the cities is to become ungovernable » (Pierre Calame) Source: Catalin Berescu, Arch. The Rise of the New Roma/Gypsy Ghettos in Europe New ghettos
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION (Source: Moritz Lennert) Social polarisation
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Are Europe's cities losing the global race for agglomeration forces? (Source: Moritz Lennert, ESPON-FOCI) Number of cities per continental block in top 100 of total GDP (PPS 2008) Economic challenges Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers UK Economic Outlook November 2009, and UNPD Urban population projections
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION (source: A. Calafati) Economic challenges
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION How much do we know about the direction of the structural evolutions of European cities and the economic implication of these (on-going) structural evolutions? Avoiding wishful thinking Avoiding focusing on success story Avoiding focusing only on meta-analyses and meta-models Promoting in-depth analysis of cities development trajectory, case by case (Source: Antonio Calafati) A scientific challenge
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Environmental challenges
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Ref: Ingela Svedin Points for discussion (Source: Udo Svedin) The natural cycles in relation to societal process The urban/rural connection The environmental shadow of the use (e.g. footprint) The green urban innovation structure and systems design Urban cores and the symbolic expression of power and decision-making The social and cultural dimensions of urban green development Green governance at local, regional and global levels with regards to urbanisation Environmental challenges
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Dominant ResponsesFeatureAlternative Responses Econo-centricObjectivesVaried TangibleMeasurementsIntangible Global excellenceScales Glocal excellent relevance & relevant excellence Linear, products, supply/ demand, push/pull models ProcessesEcosystems, networks and flows Narrow; disciplinary; sectoral; codified KnowledgesBroad; interdisciplinary; cross-sectoral; tacit Technological, mechanistic solutions MechanismsMultiple interventions and mechanisms Transferable modelsLearningContext-sensitive approaches Elites: corporate, governments, major institutions Social InterestsWide stakeholders, potential beneficiaries and participants DivisibleConcepts of Economic and Ecological Security Collective Styles of Response (source: Simon Marvin and Beth Perry)
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Technology and knowledge regions, developing foresight in a rather systemic view, smartly combining Lisbon- authorised variables: But how does it benefit the whole of the (urban) population? (Source: Michael van Cutsem) Insular regions in a Knowledge Economy BMW 2025 (Ireland) Manchester as a Knowledge Capital Linz 21 (Austria) Istanbul digital city programme Governance challenges
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Employment and social cohesion issues: a city such as Brussels faces rates above 40% when it comes to unemployment of « immigrant » young men and woman. Cities tend to invest in infrastructure and urban regeneration to tackle altogether employment, social segregation and poverty issue: Gent, Belfast, San Sebastian, Sofia, Bratislava, … This strategy is being widely supported by ERDF and examples are numerous. Some cities focus on local participation of inhabitants through these: Reykjavik, Jelgava (Latvia), Brussels. But nice buildings and refurbished city centres tend to attract higher revenues (gentrification) and chase poverty out of the city, how far? (Source: Michael van Cutsem) Governance challenges
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Peri-urban policy challenges Peri-urban activities & policy agendas dont fit NUTS boundaries. Rapid change with problems & opportunities side-by-side, Effective policy responses need to be multi-level, multi- agency and multi-functional. How to manage complex & flexible communities of stakeholders ?? How to bring together fragmented actors & objectives ?? How to enable enterprise & innovation, AND protect natural assets ?? Is this a local / regional / national / EU agenda ??
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Urban policy questions Policy integration: Multi-level & multi-actor Multi-objective BOTH Strategic AND entrepreneurial AND sustainable !! EU level policy: Competence? Effectiveness? Additionality? Targets & thresholds? National level How to strengthen spatial planning & territorial governance ? City-regional level Priority for city-region strategic governance Sector level: Linking the urban / peri-urban agenda - agriculture, transport, energy, water, housing, employment etc
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Some conclusions from workshop 1 Challenges are contradictory: need to address contradictions Challenges need to be clustered and prioritised Distinguish between todays challenges and those 20 years from now Missing messages including disparities and diversity as challenges
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Some conclusions from workshop 1 (cont.) Need to: study driving forces of trends at different time and geographic scales understand transversality between subjects/ themes develop collective intelligence and learning + new knowledge base & new indicators Develop new new ways of governance, define the level of intervention and its boundaries / general vs. specific approaches
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Our conclusion: eight key challenges How to counter social/spatial segregation/polarisation? How to ensure social and functional mixity? How to foster social inclusion and economic integration of disadvantaged groups, especially migrants? How to ensure economic transitions? (entrepreneurial environment; local & social economy; knowledge/green economy ; a viable manufacturing sector)?
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Eight key challenges (cont.) How to manage and adapt to demographic changes (e.g. ageing/age imbalances; shrinking/ growing; in/out migration)? How to maintain and attract a broad range of skills/competencies? How to stimulate diversified job creation and availability? How to achieve sustainable mobility (pedestrian, bike, clean urban transport, car, new transport modes, accessibility)?
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Eight key challenges (cont.) How to achieve greater energy efficiency and manage the transition towards a carbon-neutral city? How to manage natural resources (water, waste, air, soil and land)?
REGIONAL POLICY EUROPEAN COMMISSION Three additional transversal challenges How to ensure territorial cohesion and coherence? How to manage relationships between cities and their surroundings (hinterland; urban/peri-urban; metropolises)? How to foster cities' attractiveness (e.g., education, culture, sports, creativity and cultural/industrial heritage; safety and security; public spaces and public services) How to ensure financial sustainability?