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Water Productivity in the Agricultural Sector Water Resource Efficiency Workshop 16 – 17 June 2011, EEA, Copenhagen Maite M. Aldaya Consultant, UNEP Associate,

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Presentation on theme: "Water Productivity in the Agricultural Sector Water Resource Efficiency Workshop 16 – 17 June 2011, EEA, Copenhagen Maite M. Aldaya Consultant, UNEP Associate,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Productivity in the Agricultural Sector Water Resource Efficiency Workshop 16 – 17 June 2011, EEA, Copenhagen Maite M. Aldaya Consultant, UNEP Associate, WFN

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4 Green water volume of rainwater stored in the soil Blue water volume of fresh surface or groundwater

5 Producing more goods and services using less water… Water efficiency The accomplishment of a function, task, process, or result with the minimal amount of water feasible (m 3 /product units) Water productivity Ratio of the volume of benefit, i.e. output, service or satisfaction to the amount of water used in the production process (product units/m 3 )

6 The water footprint concept The WF is an indicator of water use that looks at both direct and indirect water use of a consumer or producer. Water use is measured in terms of: - water volumes consumed (evaporated or otherwise not returned) - polluted per unit of time Geographically explicit A WF can be calculated for: - process - product - consumer - group of consumers (e.g. municipality, province, state, nation) - producer (e.g. a public organization, private enterprise) [Hoekstra et al., 2011]

7 Consumption Export Production Import Internal water footprint External water footprint WF of national consumpt. Water use for export Virtual water import for re- export Virtual water export + + = = WF within nation Virtual water import ++ == Virtual water budget + += = National water accounting framework Traditional statistics on water use (withdrawals)

8 Distinctive aspects: Integration of hydrological, ecological and economic aspects Socio-political and institutional drivers pending Participation of the stakeholders-farmers. WIN-WIN solution In Spain the policy of more crops and jobs per drop has to change to more cash and care of nature per drop Is this feasible? Water footprint of Spain

9 96% 4% Agricultural Urban Industrial 99% 1% 84% 9% 7% Water footprint of Spain (46 Km 3 ) (2004) External WF (in other countries) Internal WF (inside Spain) 33 Km 3 (72%) 13 Km 3 (28%) Source: based on Garrido et al. (2010)

10 Water productivity in agriculture (Spain) Source: Garrido et al. (2010) Water apparent productivity and blue and green water footprint of crop production in Spanish agriculture (2002)

11 Most blue water irrigation in Spain is used for low value crops: 10% of the blue water (mainly groundwater) produces 80% of the economic value of irrigated agriculture 80% of the blue water produces low value crops Source: Aldaya et al. (2008) Total water use in agriculture by crop productivity range as percent of volume and value added (2001-2002) Water productivity in agriculture (Spain)

12 Water footprint of Spain Livestock economic relevance has increased during the last decade; Most livestock is exported (mainly pork) while grown with imported fodder (virtual water); Increased water dependency. Crop-related virtual water imports by country of origin Source: Garrido et al. (2010)

13 Food (virtual water) trade drivers Virtual water trade mitigates drought cycles (acts as a counter- cyclical effect) Virtual water trade is mainly a consequence of agricultural (crop and livestock) policies: boosts water and land productivity favours specialisation and efficiency permits more efficient use of available green water Enables a closer connection of water uses in the basin with global water use

14 Decoupling economic growth from water use Water footprint and virtual water trade per gross domestic product Source: Garrido et al. (2010)

15 WF Guadiana river basin - green and blue (surface and groundwater) - related economic analysis Spanish regulation (2008) requires including the WF analysis in the River Basin Management Plans according to the EU WFD. Water footprint of Spain

16 Incorporating the Water Footprint and Environmental Water Requirements into policy: Reflections from Doñana Region (Spain) Water footprint in Spain (Aldaya et al., 2010)

17 Water footprint of Spain Water footprint into policy Spain is the first country that has included a water footprint analysis into governmental policy making in the context of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000/60/EC). In 2008 the Spanish Government approved a regulation requiring the water footprint analysis for the development of the River Basin Management Plans according to the EU WFD (BOE, 2008). Recently Spanish regulation about sustainable tourism mentions the water footprint (Plan FuturE 2010) (BOE, 2010)

18 Conclusions 1. The WF is a good method for IWRM, but needs further refinements 2. The food (virtual water) trade is usually driven by comparative advantages. The relative scarcity of water may not be a relevant driver. 3. Socio-political factors in water management might be as important as the environmental and economic ones. An equilibrium between utilitarian and intangible values is necessary. 4. Spanish situation suggests that it is time to change (in industrialized and emerging countries) from a policy of more crops per drop to a policy of more cash and care of nature per drop Water footprint of Spain

19 Conclusions Producing more goods and services….. ….with less water.…with less impact

20 Conclusions Water efficiency and productivity - Framework to inform and support decision-making - Inform water allocation decisions - Awareness raising - Promote product transparency - Eco-efficiency (operational and supply chain) - Benchmarking Challenges - Database improvement (industrial blue water consumption) - Uncertainties (data used and accounts) - Communication (volumes and impacts) - Governance (good governance structure for implementation) - Water-pricing policies (incentives for efficient water use, role CAP)

21 Thanks! OBSERVATORIO DEL AGUA WATER OBSERVATORY


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