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Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Opportunities and constraints in delivering effective Action Planning: a UK perspective Dr.

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Presentation on theme: "Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Opportunities and constraints in delivering effective Action Planning: a UK perspective Dr."— Presentation transcript:

1 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Opportunities and constraints in delivering effective Action Planning: a UK perspective Dr Nicky Woodfield Air Quality Management Resource Centre University of the West of England, Bristol, U.K. Workshop on Plans and Programmes of Air Quality and National Emission Ceilings Directives 1 st September 2004

2 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK The AQM Resource Centre University of the West of England, Bristol, UK Manage UK local authority air quality review & assessment contract - Appraisal of air quality reports - Provision of web site & helpdesk facility Official & non-official air quality guidance Provide air quality training sessions & workshops Develop air quality strategies, action plans & air quality policy Undertake independent air quality research

3 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Environment Act 1995 –Air Quality Strategy (1997, 2000) –Air Quality Regulations (2000) Review and Assessment approach (Round 1) –Predict future concentrations, identify exceedences of air quality objectives –Focus on public exposure –Culminated in about 130 local authorities with AQMAs across the UK –Multi-disciplinary approach –Air quality action planning underway UK Air Quality Management Process

4 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Evaluation of Round 1 –Changes to assessment process: Updating and Screening Assessments (identify changes, new monitoring data) –Air quality assessment long-term timetable to 2010 –Streamlined approach to assessments & guidance –Updated tools and guidance available for Round 2 (checklists, new spreadsheet tools, new background maps) –Detailed Assessments –Annual Progress reports (monitoring data & new developments) UK Air Quality Management Process

5 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK AQMAs declared: Sources 74% traffic only 12% mainly traffic 5% traffic & industrial 4% industrial only 1% domestic & traffic Air Quality Management Areas in UK AQMAs declared: Pollutants 95% Nitrogen dioxide 45% Particulate matter PM 10 4% Sulphur dioxide Currently 127 local authorities with AQMAs Varied topographies: whole borough, isolated properties, road networks, road links Revokations, amendments, new AQMAs

6 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Air Quality Review & Assessment Stage 4 or further assessment Action Plan Consultation 12 months 18 months AQMA UK Air Quality Management Process

7 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Air Quality Action Planning requirements Environment Act 1995 requires local authorities with designated AQMAs … to prepare a written plan for the exercise by the authority, in pursuit of air quality standards and objectives in the designated area, of any powers exercisable by the authority. Within guidance, the approach to evaluating options in the plans should contain … evidence that all available options have been considered on the grounds of cost-effectiveness and feasibility Policy Guidance 2003

8 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Air Quality Action Planning (AQAP) Action plans requires substantial transition (technical assessment to wider policy integration) Corporate adoption of the AQAP is essential Local Transport Plans (LTPs) – freedom to integrate Action Plans into LTP Integration of wider Plans & Policies essential: –Local Plan –Economic Development/ Regeneration Plans –Sustainability Plans –Health Action Plans –Route Management Strategies (Highways Agency)

9 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Air quality improvement necessary (further assessment or Stage 4 provides technical backing to decisions) Wider impacts (e.g. climate change, socio- economic impacts, regeneration) need to be considered Wider planning involvement, within and external to local authority Cost-effectiveness of measures Cross-boundary issues may be relevant Air Quality Action Planning

10 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Action Planning framework Identify AQO exceedences declare AQMA Identify sources CONSIDER OPTIONS AQ improvements Cost effectiveness Non AQ impacts Practicability PRIORITISATION OF OPTIONS AIR QUALITY ACTION PLAN Implementation and monitoring

11 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Source apportionment (Stage 4 or further assessment) Often information most useful for an action plan relates to type of sources: –Through-traffic –School traffic –Commuter, leisure traffic or tourist traffic 1. Identifying Sources

12 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Utilise existing or proposed options in other plans Balance between what is already under discussion (and therefore realistically deliverable) and a new vision for the future 2. Consideration of options Options need to be drawn up in discussion with a variety of stakeholders Knowledge of the locality and current actions imperative

13 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Often not possible to include quantitative appraisal Some quantitative appraisal of air quality impacts may be possible 3. Evaluation of options Rating system is often useful (high/medium/low) Some AQAPs just provide general statements of non-AQ impacts, perceptions, cost and feasibility

14 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK 4. Prioritisation or Ranking options Key challenge of the Action Planning process Not an either or process May wish to take a matrix approach in determining a prioritised list e.g. relative scoring or rating of options Qualitative and quantitative approaches Difficult to incorporate combinations of options Need to take account of temporal aspects of options

15 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Prioritisation: Qualitative example From NSCA Guidance Air Quality: Planning for Action

16 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Prioritisation: Semi-quantitative example From NSCA Guidance Air Quality: Planning for Action

17 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Evaluation: South Lakeland DC (England)

18 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Evaluation & Prioritisation: Wycombe (England) From Wycombe District Councils Air Quality Action Plan

19 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Prioritisation: Blaby DC, England From Blaby District Councils Draft Air Quality Action Plan % improvement in air quality <0.01% % 0.1-1%1-5%5-10%>10% <£0 £0 £0-£1000 £ £10,000 £10,000 - £100,000 £100, million 1 million -10 million >10 million

20 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Case Study 1: York, England Consultation on Local Transport Plan 83% thought more action needed to reduce traffic congestion – ideas for necessary measures arose – starting point 48 possible options were divided into three categories –Public transport and alternative transport measures –Traffic management and car parking measures –Planning and promotional measures Initial (breakfast) workshop: participants considered options in terms of acceptability to themselves or their organisation Evening workshops: participants prioritised 31 options remaining after the first workshop

21 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Case Study 2: Gravesham, England Gravesham have two separate AQMAs - 1 traffic, 1 industrial A working group was set up as the most effective way forward to identify options The options were chosen and then evaluated in terms of AQ impacts, non-AQ impacts, feasibility and cost This evaluation was then used in a small workshop to prioritise the options for the draft Action Plan

22 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Case Study 3: Bristol, England 25% of city declared as AQMA Development of Plan led by Transport Planners Recognises LTP measures to improve air quality, and subsequent 27 top up measures to ensure a more rapid improvement of air quality. Screening assessment therefore identified: –NEW/LTP+ (new AQAP measure and top up measure) –LTP (measure adequately covered in LTP) –N/A (measure not cost-effective as an air quality measure)

23 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Case Study 4: West Wiltshire, England Two separate AQMAs, mainly traffic related Example of small rural borough with AQMAs relating to historic market town and small town centre Consultation has included County Council, town council, members of the public Options identified by Council in consultation with consultants, and through workshop events and seminars with consultees

24 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Case Study 5: London Borough of Richmond London-wide measures: –Encourage cleaner fuels & vehicles –Low Emission Zone for London Borough-wide measures: –Minimise commuter parking –Reduce impact from council fleet –Encourage Travel Plans –Emissions testing Local measures: –Improvements to roads and junctions –Pedestrianisation

25 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Non-UK Case Study: Bangkok Much greater issues in terms of AQ concentrations Workshop approach to identify options Some evaluation of AQ impacts, non-AQ impacts, cost and feasibility undertaken within the workshop Similar techniques as York used in terms of prioritising options Part of ongoing work to get an effective Action Plan in place for Bangkok

26 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Bangkok - measures identified and evaluated through workshop

27 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Following on from Action Plan development Implementation of Plan Monitoring Action Plan effectiveness important in future Progress Reporting of Action Plan Different indicators of success can be used (not necessarily only air quality) Statutory duty to undertake Action Planning Progress Reports annually (may be linked with Local Transport Planning reviews)

28 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Ideas for Indicators … May be more effective to consider monitoring effectiveness of different measures in Plan: –Cycling facilities: increase in cycle trips –20mph zones: speed monitoring (% vehicles exceeding limits) –Car Clubs: number of new members –Travel Plans: emission reduction estimates from monitoring business mileage –Vehicle scrapage: number and types of replacement vehicles –Indication of air quality awareness through opinion polls –Reduction in car-parking space allocation in planning developments

29 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Evaluation of Action Planning process Evaluation undertaken by Casella Stanger and Transport Travel Research Ltd. on behalf of UK governments Issues considered: –Links between the policy and technical aspects –Evidence of impact of action planning process on way in which local authorities work with external organisations –What does the consultation element of action planning deliver ?

30 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK How effective is the action planning process? Evidence of the impacts of action planning on local air quality - what are the constraints? Analysis of costs and impacts data Constraints to the action planning process - funding and responsibilities? How could action plans be improved? Evaluation of appraisal reports - is it useful? Local Air Quality Strategies - what are the links with the action planning process?

31 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Negative aspects to Action Planning (1) Lack of resources a major constraint (staff & implementation of measures) Difficult to engage with key stakeholders (Highways Agency, County Council or other internal department) Measures not within local authority control Timescale for implementing options long-term (requirement to meet objectives beyond the target date, and as such medium to long-term measures will still deliver improvements in future years)

32 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Negative aspects to Action Planning (2) Recent phasing of Action Planning process not aligned with Local Transport Planning processes - Impacts on bidding process and funds available - Difficulty in applying firm time scales for implementation Difficulty in quantifying improvements in air quality resulting from Action Plan implementation Difficult to determine whether air quality objectives will be delivered

33 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Positive aspects to Action Planning Increased liaison with neighbouring local authorities, external organisations & agencies – development of working groups to tackle problems (and wider environmental issues) Better working relationships within local authority Raised status of air quality on political agenda Provide new stream of funding for some transport initiatives Influence Local Transport Planning processes Increasing number of Air Quality Strategies highlighting more strategical approach to managing air quality

34 Air Quality Management Resource Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK Action Planning information & guidance UK Government Policy Guidance (PG(03)) UK Action Plan Helpdesk NSCA Air Quality Action Planning Guidance AQM Centre, U.W.E., Bristol, UK


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