Presentation on theme: "1 The European Environment Agency... is the EU body dedicated to providing sound, independent information on the environment... is a main information source."— Presentation transcript:
1 The European Environment Agency... is the EU body dedicated to providing sound, independent information on the environment... is a main information source for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and also the general public www.eea.eu.int
2 Tobias Wiesenthal European Environment Agency How much bioenergy can Europe produce without harming the environment? JRC/EEA/CENER/CIEMAT Workshop on Sustainable bioenergy cropping systems in the Mediterranean Madrid, 9-10 Feb 2006
3 Presentation overview Introduction and motivation Environmental considerations and implications for the potential agriculture (forestry, waste) Overall environmentally-compatible bioenergy potential Co-benefits Challenges in the Mediterranean
4 Motivation: Biomass drives renewables growth BUT can cause environmental pressures Total energy production from renewables Biomass use today ca. 69 Mtoe EU-15 indicative 2010 target for renewables: 12% 130 Mtoe biomass 150 Mtoe for EU-25 (Biomass Action Plan) Future renewable targets in 2020: 230–250 Mtoe biomass
5 EEA project: How much biomass can Europe use without harming the environment? Objective: determine the bioenergy potential from agriculture, forest, waste in 2010, 2020, 2030, which -causes no additional pressure on farmland and forest biodiversity and soil and water resources -Respects other environmental objectives
6 Institute for applied ecology (Oeko-Institut) Wageningen University & Research, Alterra AEA-Technology European Forest Institute Vienna University of Technology Fraunhofer Institute ISI RIVM
7 Agriculture: potential risks due to increased bioenergy production Increased pressure on the entire agricultural sector, thus causing intensification and larger field sizes (caused by economy of scales). Incentives to transform extensively used grassland into arable land for growing bioenergy crops. A bioenergy crop mix, which does not take account of the specific pressures of different crops in the context of the main environmental problems in a particular region.
8 Environmental criteria Extensively cultivated farmland usually has higher biodiversity value 30% of Utilized Agricultural Area environmentally oriented farming in 2030 (except Be, Lux, Malta, NL) High loss of biodiversity & release of soil carbon if grassland is transformed into arable land Only extensive bioenergy use from grassland Some farmland species require ecological stepping stones set-aside 3% of intensively used farmland for nature conservation
9 Area needed for food and fodder production UAA Area needed for food and fodder production Released land Increase EOF Released olive groves & grass land Released arable land suitable for dedicated bioenergy production land to produce exports Competition effect between energy and food markets additional arable land Yield increase CAP reform
10 Agricultural area for bioenergy production taken into account environmental constraints
11 Agricultural bioenergy: minimise environ- mental pressure by growing the right crops 1.Every bioenergy crop has a specific env. performance 2. Grow bioenergy crops with low environmental pressure 3. Set the crop-specific pressure into context of specific env. characteristics of the region erosion soil compaction nutrient inputs ground& surface water pesticide pollution of soils and water water abstraction "increased fire risk biodiversity (diversity of crop type)
12 Priorisation of annual crops for the Mediterranean South Medit. South Other Cereal s cultivate d grass Clove r. alfalfa Sorghu m Whe at Sun flower Sugar beets PotatoesMaize erosionAAAAAB/CCCC soil compactionAA/B AAACCB nutrient inputs groundwaterABBAAA/BBBC nutrient inputs in surface waterABBAAA/BB/C C pesticide pollution of soils and water AAAB/CABBBC water abstractionAAAABBBCA/B increased fire risk---C A Link to farmland biodiversityBB/CBB A/BBB/CC (diversity of crop types)BAABCA (B/C) BA/BB/C Note: A means low risk, C high risk
13 Environmental ranking of energy crops by climatic zone Multi-year crops (SRF/perennials) often more favourable than annual crops: support erosion protection and reduce N input Look for high yield (annual) cropping systems which enable extensive cropping: 2-culture systems of annual crops offer low biocide/fertilizer input and maximum output, no tilling Priorisation of annual crops for the nemoral and boreal zone: linseed cereals oilseed rape sugar beet potatoes NB: Farming practices are NOT taken into account!
14 Available technologies Gentle shift in crop mix Environmental ranking Yield by zone & crop ENVIRONMENTALLY- COMPATIBLE AGRICULTURAL BIOENERGY POTENTIAL Sustainable Bioenergy Crop Mix by MS Land Determing the agricultural bioenergy potential
15 Environmentally-compatible bioenergy potential from agriculture by crop type
17 Forestry biomass complementary fellings Stem wood and residues residue extraction from stem wood demand + stem wood due to competition with other wood industry
18 Forestry bioenergy: environmental considerations Forest residues regulate water flows adapt extraction rate to soil water regime Forest residues supply the ecosystem with nutrients always leave foliage in the forest adapt the residue extraction rate to soil nutrient balance Forest residues reduce the risk of erosion never extract the roots adapt extraction rate to local steepness Increase share of deadwood and protected areas
19 Environmental local suitability for residue extraction
20 Environmentally-compatible bioenergy potential from forests
21 Biowaste scenarios Adaptation of baseline developments in line with assumptions in the Forestry sub-project Agricultural subproject Overall energy scenario + introduction of further environmental criteria greater waste reduction, e.g. households -25% reduced landfill, enhanced recycling and composting
23 All sectors: Environmentally-compatible bioenergy potential, EU-25 Conclusion 1: Environmental criteria are required. But even then, substantial, and increasing biomass potential could be available
24 Conclusion 2: Explore co-benefits between energy use and nature protection 1. Use cuttings from grassland necessary to maintain biodiversity-rich grassland and landscape diversity provide (limited) amount of bioenergy (5-7% of total agric. potential) 2. Use new bioenergy crop systems and varieties reduced environmental pressure: less nutrient input, enhanced crop diversity, less use of heavy machines lower, structural elements high energy yield 3. Use forest residues Can support fire prevention measures in otherwise unmanaged forests in Southern Europe provides bioenergy, covering (parts of) the cost of collection
25 Dilemma in the Mediterranean Very special agro-environmental characteristics High risk of soil erosion Water abstraction problems Increased fire risk Relatively low share of arable land in UAA Medium to low-intensive farmland (HNV) Problems with land abandonment Need for alternative rural activities Only few crops seemed suitable from an environmental perspective Arable crops may increase water abstraction (double cropping no solution -> are there other high-yield, low input cropping systems?) Only few perennial crops suited for very arid summers (e.g. reed canary grass, switchgrass) But: Increased risk of fire; landscape considerations Environmentally-compatible bioenergy production with large synergetic effects could be of high relevance
26 Workshop objective: solving the dilemma What are the practical experiences made with the growth of conventional bioenergy crops (yields, environmental pressures)? Are there any other crops or crop combinations and agroforestry options that can combine low input and high yields? How about fire risks etc.? What is the environmental impact of different bioenergy crops in the agro-environmental context of the Mediterranean? Which social, economical and consideration will have to be respected with regards to bioenergy production in the Mediterranean ?
27 Tobias Wiesenthal European Environment Agency phone : +45 3336 – 7194 email@example.com Thank you very much for your attention
29 Priorisation of annual crops for the Mediterranean North Medit. North Other Cereal s cultivate d grass Clover alfalfa Sorghu m Whea t Sun flower Sugar beets Potatoe s Maize erosionAAAAAB/CCCC soil compactionAA/B AAACCB nutrient inputs groundwaterABBAAA/BBBC nutrient inputs in surface water ABBAAA/BB/C C pesticide pollution of soils and water AAAB/CABBBC water abstractionAAAABBBCA/B increased fire risk---C A Link to farmland biodiversityBB/CBB A/BBB/CC diversity of crop typesBAABCA (B/C) BA/BB/C Note: A means low risk, C high risk
30 Forests available for wood supply Sustainable harvest level Forests not available for wood supply Criteria 4, 5: more deadwood more protected areas Fellings to fulfil market demand for wood products Complimentary fellings Stem wood Residues Stem wood environ- mental criteria 1-3: site suitability Env.-compatible potential Wood industry competition effect for high energy prices Forestry: approach
31 Which technologies can exploit the environmentally-compatible potential? Heat and electricity production are better suited to use solid biomass, perennials, biogas etc. 2 nd generation biofuel technologies are promising from an environmental perspective (BTL, biogas, ethanol+) as they can use ligno-cellulosic material: Can use low-impact, high yield crops and grass cuttings as input Allows the use of the important bioenergy potential from forestry and waste, incl. by-products from agriculture Environmentally-friendly crop mixes favour perennials and low-impact, high yield crops 1 st generation biofuel production has limited potential Sugar beet and oilseed rape appear not so favourable
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