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Study on the impact of EU consumption on deforestation FLEGT WEEK, 10 th October 2013 GIULIANA TORTA European Commission DG ENVIRONMENT.

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Presentation on theme: "Study on the impact of EU consumption on deforestation FLEGT WEEK, 10 th October 2013 GIULIANA TORTA European Commission DG ENVIRONMENT."— Presentation transcript:

1 Study on the impact of EU consumption on deforestation FLEGT WEEK, 10 th October 2013 GIULIANA TORTA European Commission DG ENVIRONMENT

2 Reports published on 2 nd July mpact_deforestation.htm /03/l-europe-importe-massivement-des- produits-lies-a-la- deforestation_ _3244.html NGOs, main media sites, twitter and other networks 2

3 3 EU impact on deforestation deforestation associated with EU27 final consumption is 10% of worldwide deforestation embodied in commodities and products in 2004 ( ha). Consumption of oil crops (e.g. soybeans, palm oil) and derived products, as well as livestock products, had the main impact.

4 4 Over the period , the EU27 imported almost 36% of all deforestation embodied in crop and livestock products traded between regions (9Mha of deforested land). The second ranked region in terms of net import of deforestation was Eastern Asia (including China and Japan), with 4.5 Mha over the same period. North America imported 1.9 Mha.

5 5 The land used by the EU27 for the production of its goods and services represents only half of the land associated with its consumption Mainly agricultural and food products, but also derived processed products such as furniture and clothing When aggregated per sector, food consumption dominates the impact on deforestation (60%).

6 6 Reasons for this study October 2008 Communication [COM (2008) 645] "Addressing the challenges of deforestation and forest degradation to tackle climate change and biodiversity loss" The COM indicates, among other actions, the following: "More generally on policy coherence, the Commission is committed to […]: studying the impact of EU consumption of imported food and non-food commodities (e.g. meat, soy beans, palm oil, metal ores) that are likely to contribute to deforestation. This could lead to considering policy options to reduce this impact". Responding to the Communication, the Environment Council, the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee all expressed strong support for such a study.

7 What is deforestation Mining, illegal logging, unsustainable forest management,shifting cultivation, etc. Pastures / livestock Infrastructure development DEFORESTATION degradation due to internal country consumption/land use and to external demand (exports) Agricultural crops (timber minor) natural hazards

8 Study objectives Stakeholders ws

9 transition model eforestation/l and use changes Transition model deforestation/ land use changes

10 10 What is new compared to other studies Global modelling, not case or country based A 'transition model' linking deforestation and land use changes An indicator: embedded/embodied deforestation in crops/products. Externality linking deforestation to the associated consumption of goods. raw commodities but also entire consumption sectors analysed, i.e.leather/textile

11 11 The limits of the study Data sets ( /10 for deforestation and apparent consumption; 2004 for final consumption analysis) reflecting FAO FRA/ FAOSTAT datasets limits (25% of deforestation remains unexplained) and modelling (GTAP limits) Forest degradation not quantified underestimation of illegal logging and unsustainable management practices Expert's assumption in building the transition model (attribution of weights to deforestation drivers/commodities production) Two-track modelling for apparent (LANDFLOW) and final consumption (GTAP)

12 12 -HOW MUCH: 239 million hectares of forest were lost between 1990 and 2008, an annual area of 13 million hectares (Mha). -WHERE: Major regional differences are present in this trend: South America is the hardest hit by deforestation (33% of global deforestation), followed by sub-Saharan-Africa (31%) and Southeast Asia (19%). Global deforestation

13 13 Causes of deforestation

14 14 Deforestation embodied in international trade A substantial part of the embodied deforestation remains in the country/region of production: -crops (two thirds), livestock (92%) and wood products (two thirds). The remaining part is exported to other regions. Oil crops (soybean and oil palm) and their derived products represent the largest share (63%) of this commodities export, followed by stimulants such as coffee and tea (11%), and fibre crops (8%).

15 deforestation and crops Figure 3-6 Contribution of specific crops to deforestation associated with expansion of crop production, per crop

16 Main commodities /products into EU Soybean (cake and beans) from Brazil Meat products from Brazil Soybean (cake and beans) from Argentina From Nigeria and West Africa many crops (cocoa) Soybeans from Paraguay Palm oil from Indonesia Stimulants, fibers, rubber

17 17 - Average food consumption per capita in the EU27 is expected to stabilise but with a slightly growing EU27 population, additional land (and related land use) of 3 to 4 Mha will be needed by Slight behavioural changes in EU27 food consumption patterns, such as decreased meat consumption, could reduce the need for additional land by up to 10 Mha by A reduction in food waste could also significantly reduce the impact of EU consumption on deforestation. Future trends: food sector

18 18 -Oil crops and the biofuel sector are expected to demand more land and could be the cause of additional deforestation. -For solid biomass, the study predicts an additional demand of 318 million m³ round wood from forests between 2010 and The bulk of this bioenergy will be in the form of wood pellets, increasingly being imported (EU demand for wood pellets is estimated to triple by 2020) Future trends: energy sector

19 19 IDENTIFIED POLICIES Climate and Renewable energy Common Agricultural Policy Forestry Strategy Biodiversity Strategy Sustainable Production and Consumption Trade, Investment Development Cooperation Research and Innovation

20 20 LIST OF POLICY PROPOSALS Out of 34, those scoring high are 5 but all in need of feasibility and legal checks: - Extend the sustainability criteria for biofuels to other uses of the same crops (food, feed, products, materials); - Promote and strengthen FLEGT AP, and expand to other commodities - Mandatory labelling of the forest footprint of (food) products; - Increase the import tariffs of commodities that are associated with deforestation; - Attach sustainability criteria to the import of commodities that are associated with deforestation

21 21 Possibilities for political follow up of the study results Reflection and preparation phase, not only in the EC (Chatham House and Meridien Institute work) 7th Environment Action Programme: an Action Plan on deforestation In the pipeline or ongoing in the EC/EU: Sustainable Food Communication or SWP; Study EU impact on biodiversity; EU initiative on responsible sourcing of minerals: COM/REG sustainability criteria for solid biomass Responsible business practices (reporting, code of conducts)

22 22 Multilateral processes REDD negotiations and informal working groups CBD Post UNFF Post 2015 targets (RIO+20 follow up) Green Economy mainstreaming Bilateral dialogue with the USA Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations, beyond the current multilateral trade rules contained in WTO law Private sector Example from Zero-deforestation targets from Nestle' and others

23 Thank you for your attention

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