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Quality of Work and Employment in Europe: first findings from the European Working Conditions Survey Agnès Parent- Thirion surveys and trends unit.

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Presentation on theme: "Quality of Work and Employment in Europe: first findings from the European Working Conditions Survey Agnès Parent- Thirion surveys and trends unit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Quality of Work and Employment in Europe: first findings from the European Working Conditions Survey Agnès Parent- Thirion surveys and trends unit

2 A few pointers on quality of work Quality of work, decent work, quality of work and employment, quality of employment Different framework Multidimensional Capture the world of work for all employees Taking into consideration : different sectors / public/private / different jobs / gender / different job status / self-employed and employees The context matters: legislation, labour market, employment policies, social protection and social provisions,… Context: Sustainability, ageing workforce, lifecourse, crisis…

3 Enriching knowledge through a multidisciplinary approach over time: from health and safety to quality of working life Schulte P, Vainio H. Well-being at work – overview and perspective. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2010; 36(5):

4 Some frameworks with different purposes EU: European employment strategy (quality of work) from Lisbon strategy (more and better jobs) to EU2020 (smart, sustainable and inclusive growth) ILO: Decent work UNECE/ILO/Eurostat: quality of employment Eurofound: quality of work and employment -> different purposes: - from measuring progress towards a political process - to a more independent and underlying measurement of quality of work as such which might contribute to the process…

5 PROTECTING HEALTH & WELL-BEING Health and safety outcomes Exposure to risks Participation Occupational Health and Safety prevention framework Healthy work organisation Different dimensions of quality of work and employment BALANCING WORK with NON WORK LIFE Organisation of working time blurring fronteers between work and private life Social infrastructures and provisions HAVING A JOB WITH FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS & EMPLOYMENT SECURITY Employment status Wages Access to social protection Workers rights QWE USING and ACQUIRING SKILLS Initial education Cognitive content of work Training & lifelong learning Career development Learning organisation

6 How can QWE be useful for EU2020 Smart, sustainable and inclusive growth sustainable jobs health and well being (over the life course), healthy work organisation, work intensity working time/ work life balance smarter working work organisation, education, training & lifelong learning, employability, learning org, workplace organisation, productivity inclusive work/society employment rates of 75%, flexicurity : empl status and salaries, rights at work, social protection work life balance, working time arrangements, social infrastructure Mainstreaming of gender, age/life course

7 Change over the last 20 years Globalisation Structure of employment More in services, less in industry A wide variety of employment contracts (& blurring division between self- employed and employees) A more diverse workforce More women on the labour market _-> but gender segregation remains Ageing workforce (National) European policies aiming at modernising working life aimed at social progress and /or developing competitiveness Transformation in the management of companies adaptability and reactivity, HRM

8 Low level of mental well being per country - workers (who 5 index - ewcs 2010)

9 Working when sick in the past 12 months

10 Level of job segregation at the workplace by gender, 2010, EU27 (%) Some results of the EWCS

11 Managers and supervisors working hours

12 Human resource management practices

13 Diffusion of high performance workplaces practices : team work

14 Diffusion of high performance workplace practices : task rotation schemes

15 Restructuring or reorganisation Vs introduction of new processes or technologies, by country, 2010 (% of respondents)

16 Participation in improving the work organisation or processes, by country, 2010 (%) Workers involved in workplace innovation

17 Many ways of developing on the job but trends have not increased

18 Employer-paid training by age of employee, 1995 – 2010, EU15 and EU27 (%) (or paid by oneself if self-employed) Training on increase, but big differences remain

19 Skills and duties match is important for both work companies and the workers

20 Use of technology, EU27,

21 Some results of the EWCS: working time: reduction over time EWCS

22 But working time dispersion differs between countries EWCS 2010

23 Working time duration and stress Long working hours : - Slightly decreasing but still 54% of self-employed with employees, 43% of self-employed without employees and 11 % of employees - work 48 + hours per week - -> Report more health problems, work life balance problems and work intensity - Short working hours (particularly short part time) - Increasing, mostly female phenomenon (gender segregation) - Can be linked with other psychosocial risks mainly related to job and financial insecurity

24 Working time organisation Standard working hours still the norm but a good proportion of workers work at different times 16% of workers work long days (>10 hours) at least 5 times a month 10% of workers do night work more than 3 times a month 17% of the workers do shift work 20% work on call 53% work at the weekend at least once a month 26% work at least one Sunday a month -> also report more of the same problems of health, work-life balance and work intensity (as first group) Variability and predictability : other important elements for work-life balance

25 Working hours preference, by gender, age and employment status, 2010, EU27 (%)

26 Work life balance 18% of workers have problems with work-life balance Men > women esp. men yrs old Dissatisfaction for women more evenly spread over career But flexibility of workers and employers 1 / 3 of the workers can easily take 1 hour off Easier for men than for women More than 1 / 3 work in their free time Slightly more men and for women Nearly 20 % (both men and women) do this more than once per week

27 But if we look at all working time …

28 E-nomads, by country, EU27 (%)

29 Exposure to combined ergonomic, biological and chemical and ambient risks, by country (index scores, EU27 average = 100)

30 Change in exposure to physical risks (index) between 2000 and 2010, by country

31 Work intensity on the increase Working to tight deadlines, EC12, EU15 and EU27, (%)

32 (Objective) work intensity

33 Autonomy has remained stable globally Ability to change methods of work, by type of occupation, 2000 – 2010, EU27 (%)

34 Autonomy versus Work intensity, by sector and occupation

35 Psychosocial risks (2) Work related stress factors : Work demands (work intensity, w orking long hours, cognitive demands, work-life balance) Emotional demands (contact with people, emotional involvement, consequences of mistakes) Room for manoeuvre Social relations Value conflicts and work dissatisfaction Employment insecurity and lack of career prospects and insecurity in the work Violence, harassment and bullying

36 Hostile relationships at work 2010, EU27 (%) MenWomen Over the last month, during the course of your work, have you been subjected to verbal abuse?10.80%10.70% Over the last month, during the course of your work, have you been subjected to unwanted sexual attention?1.10%2.60% Over the last month, during the course of your work, have you been subjected to threats and humiliating behaviour?4.90%5.10%

37 Violence, Discrimination and Harassment 2010, EU27 (%) MenWomen Over the past 12 months, during the course of your work, have you been subjected to physical violence?2.00%1.70% Over the past 12 months, during the course of your work, have you been subjected to bullying /harassment?3.90%4.40% Over the past 12 months, during the course of your work, have you been subjected to sexual harassment?0.60%1.50%

38 Able to work at 60, by country

39 Lack of information on health and safety risks per country

40 Conclusions Quality of work remains important Work matters, not only employment -> Better may be even more needed now ! Needed for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth Challenge: Understand the phenomena No simple answers / explanation to most phenomena Multilevel. Multi actions needed European-wide comparative data Workers and employers surveys Differences between groups of workers, economic activities and countries are important. Changes dont go into the same directions for all groups of workers. Identification of groups of workers, situations of work which are of concern but also of groups and situations which shall encourage us Context remains important Limited yet noticeable changes at global level Change is possible and actors have a role to play Evidence of change over time of a number of indicators. Are we heading into the right direction ? Do we want to foster / nurture more changes ?

41 Merci

42 Working long hours … Reports Working less than 48hWorking 48 h or more Problems with work- life balance 16%38% Work affects my health negatively 23%37% Work intensity (high speed > ½ time) 44%54% Consulted for your work targets 22%29% I feel at home at work22 %33 % EWCS 2010

43 Working shifts, at night Shift work No shift work Night work No night work Weekend work No weekend work Problems with WLB 29%15%37%15%27%10% Work affect my health negatively 33%23%36%22%28%21% Work intensity (high speed ½) 55%44%55%45%49%53% Consulted for your work targets 40%48%46%48%46%49% I feel at home at work 60%62%68%65%68%

44 Job tasks in conflict with ones values, by occupation (ISCO08), 2010, EU27 (%)

45 Knowing what is expected of you at work, by sector (NACE), 2010, EU27(%)

46 Emotional involvement in ones work, by sector (NACE), 2010, EU27 (%)

47 Change of working hours in the past year, by country, 2010 (%)

48 The recession : change of salary in the past year, by country, 2010 (%) The recession : change of salary in the past year, by country, 2010 (%)

49 My work affects my health negatively


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