Presentation on theme: "Trends in Land Degradation in Latin America and the Caribbean."— Presentation transcript:
1Trends in Land Degradation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Arusha, Tanzania, Dec. 2006Dr. Fernando SantibañezCenter on Agriculture and Environment (AGRIMED)University of Chile
2Latin America and the Caribberan Some facts aboutLatin America and the CaribberanOne of the biggest reserves for new cultivable areaThe greatest reserve of fresh water in the worldThe richest reserve of plant and animal speciesOne thirth of the forests of the worldSome of the less disturbed biomes in the worldDue to its interaction with Antactic waters, hasthe highest marine biodiversity
302*CO2 The most remarcable expected modifications Precipitation Increase2*CO2Warm AmazonianHigherclimatic variabilityPolarAndeanPrecipitationdecreaseTemperateThe most remarcable expected modificationsColdPatagonian steppes
33How human activity is affecting this continent?The human drivers
34The LAC degradation cycle Land use / Human activitiesMarginal lands good landsPoverty intensive agricultureUnsound practices unsound practices due todue to lack of the lack of environmentaltechnology considerations.Plan cover removal soil compactionand forest fires salinationchemical deteriorationfloodingslope cultivation overgrazingsoil erosiondecay of soil productivityafforestationurbanizationminingnatural restorationAGRI DESERTIThe LAC degradation cycle
35LS M ES Population pressure Climate change pressure H L Warm NE CatingaChacoRainForestHHLHDry PampasSclerophylusforestTemperateforestAtacamadesertHLHHLAndeanaltiplanoPatagoniansteppessub antarcticTundraColdHHLLHHumidDryPresent situation of the main LAC Biomes
47MONITOR MONITORING SYSTEM FOR DRYLAND ECOSYSTEMS IN LATIN AMERICA MONITOR STRUCTUREEDITORDATA BASEMAPPINGTOOLSSTATISTICALMODULEFILTERSDESERTIFICATIONINDICATORSMAPSANALYSISSimulated pesimistic scenario for the presenceof a species within the polygons of a region in Chileto t t t t+4GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACILITYLATIN AMERICAN UNITUNITED NATIONALENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMTIME MODELSTIME TRENDSSIMULATORMODELSUSERS DEFINEDALGORITHMSTHEMATIC LAYERSCHANGE SCENARIOSPOVERTY = INCOME + HEALTH + EDUCATION
49i e P Soil UNEP/GEF Erosion Unsound agricultural practices Salination Soil fertility deteriorationContaminationIrrigation with saline waterCompactionSoil exposure to precipitationLoss of OMePPhysicaldestructionSoiliContaminationInefficient irrigationDegree of erosionDegree of salinationLevel of PollutionDegree of compactionOM contentLoss of agricultural landsThe database of the MONITOR include Pressure and state indicators for the main components of the territorial system. Very often a single pressure can affect several components, that is why models created by the user using the system tools, are useful to integrate indicators.Solid depositionSlope cultivationMining
52Models Simulator Database Filters Indicators Tendencies Standards ScenariosProjectsMapsHistogramsMatricesSimulatorx2ModelsEditorMONITORStructureThe Monitor system has a database containing all variables considered by the user as relevant. In this case the selected variables are unified between the participant countries. Around this database, referred to a base map of spatial units, we got tools to map any variable of the database, to create histograms, to create numerical models by combining several variables, to filter the database so as to convert variables into standardized indicators and to create scenarios of possible changes of this indicators in the future. All results can be mapped.
54Clearly, the war against desertification is won or lost at the local level Fos this, we need to connect actors having diverse capacities.ResearchParticipationPolicyAction
55Major symptoms of desertification in LAC 1. Loss of native vegetation 2. High topsoil erosion rate3. Declining groundwater tables4. Salinization of topsoil and water5. Reduction of surface waterAll of these symptoms show negative trends
61SoilsLAC has originally 6.93 millions Km2 of forests, it has been reduced at present to 3.66.The continent loss near Km2 of forest every year306 millions hectares are moderate or intense degradationIrrigated lands are about 15 millions hectares, the most part of them show simptoms of soil degradation20% of physical surface is already degraded …are we waiting for more?
62BiodiversityThe region contains 40 per cent of the plant and animal species of the planet.The biota of all LAC countries are threatened.Brazil has the second largest number of threatened bird species (103 species) in the world, and Peru and Colombia occupy the fifth place with 64 species eachA third of Chilean vertebrates are threatenedBrazil also has 71 threatened mammal species (the fourth highest in the world).More than 50 per cent of Argentinean mammals and birds are also threatened.Areas with large numbers of threatened birds tend also to have large numbers of threatened mammals.
63Will our economies continue to grow based on environmental subsidies? Will we halt this tendency before a real catastrophe?Who will pay for…the crisis….the equilibrium?Will the agriculture be able to take a relevant role to preventfuture (ecological, energy, water) crisis?Will we have enough capacity to adapt to new planetary situations? (this imply restrictions, opportunities and decision)