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Trends in Land Degradation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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Presentation on theme: "Trends in Land Degradation in Latin America and the Caribbean."— Presentation transcript:

1 Trends in Land Degradation in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Arusha, Tanzania, Dec. 2006 Dr. Fernando Santibañez Center on Agriculture and Environment (AGRIMED) University of Chile

2 Latin America and the Caribberan
Some facts about Latin America and the Caribberan One of the biggest reserves for new cultivable area The greatest reserve of fresh water in the world The richest reserve of plant and animal species One thirth of the forests of the world Some of the less disturbed biomes in the world Due to its interaction with Antactic waters, has the highest marine biodiversity

3 Emisiones industriales

4 Debido al cambio de uso de la tierra

5 Climate drivers Human drivers Mining Charcoal Global changes
Overgrazing Erosion Climate drivers Human drivers Soil denudation Mining Charcoal Global changes Slope cultivation

6 How climate change is affecting
this continent? Climatic drivers for land degradation

7 Changes in Minimum temperatures in the Western side of Los Andes
ice field ARGENTINA SANTIAGO CITY Pacific Ocean CHILE

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15 Present climate (anual ΣT-10º)

16 + 1.8 ºC

17 2*CO2

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22 Annual rainfal year

23 Fournier index year year

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30 2*CO2 The most remarcable expected modifications Precipitation
Increase 2*CO2 Warm Amazonian Higher climatic variability Polar Andean Precipitation decrease Temperate The most remarcable expected modifications Cold Patagonian steppes

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33 How human activity is affecting
this continent? The human drivers

34 The LAC degradation cycle
Land use / Human activities Marginal lands good lands Poverty intensive agriculture Unsound practices unsound practices due to due to lack of the lack of environmental technology considerations. Plan cover removal soil compaction and forest fires salination chemical deterioration flooding slope cultivation overgrazing soil erosion decay of soil productivity afforestation urbanization mining natural restoration AGRI DESERTI The LAC degradation cycle

35 LS M ES Population pressure Climate change pressure H L Warm
NE Catinga Chaco Rain Forest H H L H Dry Pampas Sclerophylus forest Temperate forest Atacama desert H L H H L Andean altiplano Patagonian steppes sub antarctic Tundra Cold H H L L H Humid Dry Present situation of the main LAC Biomes

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38 Guayaquil 1985

39 Guayaquil 2000

40 Iguazú 1973

41 Iguazú 2000

42 Rondonia 1975

43 Rondonia 2000

44 Santa Cruz 1975

45 Santa Cruz 2000

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47 MONITOR MONITORING SYSTEM FOR DRYLAND ECOSYSTEMS IN LATIN AMERICA
MONITOR STRUCTURE EDITOR DATA BASE MAPPING TOOLS STATISTICAL MODULE FILTERS DESERTIFICATION INDICATORS MAPS ANALYSIS Simulated pesimistic scenario for the presence of a species within the polygons of a region in Chile to t t t t+4 GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACILITY LATIN AMERICAN UNIT UNITED NATIONALENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM TIME MODELS TIME TRENDS SIMULATOR MODELS USERS DEFINED ALGORITHMS THEMATIC LAYERS CHANGE SCENARIOS POVERTY = INCOME + HEALTH + EDUCATION

48 Monitor development Pilot areas

49 i e P Soil UNEP/GEF Erosion Unsound agricultural practices Salination
Soil fertility deterioration Contamination Irrigation with saline water Compaction Soil exposure to precipitation Loss of OM e P Physical destruction Soil i Contamination Inefficient irrigation Degree of erosion Degree of salination Level of Pollution Degree of compaction OM content Loss of agricultural lands The database of the MONITOR include Pressure and state indicators for the main components of the territorial system. Very often a single pressure can affect several components, that is why models created by the user using the system tools, are useful to integrate indicators. Solid deposition Slope cultivation Mining

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52 Models Simulator Database Filters Indicators Tendencies Standards
Scenarios Projects Maps Histograms Matrices Simulator x2 Models Editor MONITOR Structure The Monitor system has a database containing all variables considered by the user as relevant. In this case the selected variables are unified between the participant countries. Around this database, referred to a base map of spatial units, we got tools to map any variable of the database, to create histograms, to create numerical models by combining several variables, to filter the database so as to convert variables into standardized indicators and to create scenarios of possible changes of this indicators in the future. All results can be mapped.

53 Mexico Chile Biodiversity Brazil Mapas no a escala

54 Clearly, the war against desertification is won or lost at the local level
Fos this, we need to connect actors having diverse capacities. Research Participation Policy Action

55 Major symptoms of desertification in LAC 1. Loss of native vegetation
2. High topsoil erosion rate 3. Declining groundwater tables 4. Salinization of topsoil and water 5. Reduction of surface water All of these symptoms show negative trends

56 Slope cultivation

57 Overgrazing

58 Habitat fragmentation

59 Soil erosion

60 Deforestation

61 Soils LAC has originally 6.93 millions Km2 of forests, it has been reduced at present to 3.66. The continent loss near Km2 of forest every year 306 millions hectares are moderate or intense degradation Irrigated lands are about 15 millions hectares, the most part of them show simptoms of soil degradation 20% of physical surface is already degraded …are we waiting for more?

62 Biodiversity The region contains 40 per cent of the plant and animal species of the planet. The biota of all LAC countries are threatened. Brazil has the second largest number of threatened bird species (103 species) in the world, and Peru and Colombia occupy the fifth place with 64 species each A third of Chilean vertebrates are threatened Brazil also has 71 threatened mammal species (the fourth highest in the world). More than 50 per cent of Argentinean mammals and birds are also threatened. Areas with large numbers of threatened birds tend also to have large numbers of threatened mammals.

63 Will our economies continue to grow based on environmental subsidies?
Will we halt this tendency before a real catastrophe? Who will pay for…the crisis….the equilibrium? Will the agriculture be able to take a relevant role to prevent future (ecological, energy, water) crisis? Will we have enough capacity to adapt to new planetary situations? (this imply restrictions, opportunities and decision)


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