Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Language. Chapter Questions How does human language differ from forms of communication in other animals? How do children acquire language? What."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Questions How does human language differ from forms of communication in other animals? How do children acquire language? What are some characteristics of human languages, and how are languages structured? What are the relationships between language, thought, and culture? How do people communicate without using words? How do languages change?
What We Will Learn Origin of Human Language Characteristics of Language Acquiring Language Language and Culture Nonverbal Communication Language Change
Origin of Human Language No language = no culture. Emergence of language? Recreates complex thoughts and experiences in words. Distinct from any other animal communication system. C. Hockett- 2 steps Blending Duality of Patterning
Major Languages of the World LanguagePrimary Country Number of Speakers MandarinChina874,000,000 HindiIndia366,000,000 EnglishUK/USA341,000,000 SpanishSpain/South America 322,000,000 BengaliBangladesh207,000,000 PortuguesePortugal/Brazil176,000,000
Major Languages of the World LanguagePrimary CountryNumber of Speakers RussianRussia167,000,000 JapaneseJapan125,000,000 GermanGermany100,000,000 KoreanKorea78,000,000 FrenchFrance77,000,000 WuChina77,000,000
Characteristics of a Language Conventionality meaning sequence of sounds & object, action or idea. Productive new combination of sounds & words, openness, flexibility. vocabulary that can expand with cultural changes. Displacement Abstract thought use.
Acquiring Language Biological capability of language acquisition Innate language? Victor Genie Human vs. Ape language capacity Universal Grammar
Basic principles, conditions, and rules underlie all languages. Children apply unconscious universal grammar to the sounds they hear. All languages share fundamental similarities.
The Structure of Language Phonology Phonemes Morphology Morphemes Syntax Semantics lexicon
Language & Culture Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis Language influences perception. Language establishes mental categories that affect the ways people conceptualize the real world. Sociolinguistics Languages & Dialects AAVE &BEV Code Switching
Historical linguistics Focused on discovering the history of languages. Vocabularies are constantly changing. Sociolinguists are interested in the social factors that affect changes in languages.
Nonverbal Communication Most messages are sent and received without words: Facial expressions Gestures Eye contact Touching Posture
Non-verbal Communication Haptics Chronemics Monochronic Time Polychronic Time Proxemics Kinesics
Nonverbal communication Almost 2/3s of communication. Messages sent by clothing, jewelry, tattoos, piercings, and body modifications.