Presentation on theme: "UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Key Airworthiness Issues Cliff Whittaker, Policy Manager, Airworthiness Division, Civil Aviation Authority, UK UNMANNED AIRCRAFT."— Presentation transcript:
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Key Airworthiness Issues Cliff Whittaker, Policy Manager, Airworthiness Division, Civil Aviation Authority, UK UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Key Airworthiness Issues Cliff Whittaker, Policy Manager, Airworthiness Division, Civil Aviation Authority, UK
Summary of ICAO Convention Each State is responsible for its airspace and has ultimate control over its airspace – Article 1 UAVs of any State must have prior permission before entering the airspace of another State – Article 8 UAVs operations must be controlled so that they do not cause danger to civil aircraft – Article 8 UAVs must comply with the internationally agreed Rules of the Air – Article 12
ICAO Convention Annex 8 – Airworthiness Standards Should airworthiness standards be less demanding if the aircraft is unmanned? The ICAO Convention - Annex 8 specifies the minimum airworthiness standards for aircraft (including pilotless aircraft). The introduction to Annex 8 defines the purpose of these standards as follows:
ICAO Convention Annex 8 Foreword, page (x) According to this policy: a) the objective of international Standards is to define, for application by the competent nations authorities, the minimum level of airworthiness constituting the international basis for the recognition by States, under Article 33 of the Convention, of certificates of airworthiness for the purpose of the flight of aircraft of other States into or over their territories, thereby achieving, among other things, protection of other aircraft, third parties and property.
ICAO Convention Annex 8 The focus of the ICAO Annex 8 airworthiness standards is the protection of people and property on the ground and of other aircraft sharing the airspace. Annex 8 sets different levels of airworthiness by maximum weight alone – The number of occupants is not mentioned in ICAO Annex 8. FARs, JARs and EASA CSs are a means to comply with Annex 8
European Essential Requirements for Airworthiness – Regulation 1592/2002. The Essential Requirements put into European law the minimum standards (compliant with ICAO Annex 8) that apply to all aircraft. Again, the number of occupants is not mentioned.
Airworthiness Standards Like other Large Aeroplanes the Airbus Beluga complies with JAR/CS 25, even though no more than 5 seats can be fitted
Airworthiness Standards Is the risk to people and property on the ground negligible?
October 4, El Al Boeing 747 cargo plane crashed in Holland, killing all 4 crew members and 47 people on the ground. The aircraft lost its No.3 and 4 engines. The separation of the No. 3 engine was initiated by fatigue (corrosion) in the inboard midspar fuse pin. Airworthiness Standards Not in this case -
One perception of safety: Headline News Manned aircraft _____________________________________________________________ AIRCRAFT CRASHES NEAR SCHOOL Pilot crashed into trees to avoid risk to children ________________________________________________________________ Unmanned aircraft – _____________________________________________________________ TERROR AS GUIDED MISSILE ALMOST HITS SCHOOL Shocked parents demand Inquiry ________________________________________________________________
Summary Type Certification to defined standards is an ICAO requirement Type Certification to meet the Essential Requirements is required by European legislation (to meet ICAO standards on behalf of the States). Fair treatment requires that aircraft of the same mass meet the same requirements; manned or unmanned. Requiring the same standards as for manned aircraft is a more robust position for legal defence following an accident. Military (NATO) has adopted USAR based on CS-23 – because many military authorities are required to meet civil standards wherever possible. The proposed policy to use manned aircraft requirements with Special Conditions is the appropriate solution.