Presentation on theme: "Acrylamide in Biscuits & Crispbread Geoff Thompson"— Presentation transcript:
1 Acrylamide in Biscuits & Crispbread Geoff Thompson
2 IntroductionIndustry is funding a number of research projects, including one at the Universities of Reading,Nottingham and Leeds in addition to carrying out it’s own work.The Maillard reaction is key in the formation of acrylamideIn biscuits this involves asparagine in the flour reacting with sugars in the recipe
4 Agronomy Asparagine in flour varies significantly 26 samples from France,Poland,UK,Belgium,Finland,Czech rep. and Italy (2002 Harvest) gave the following results:-AsparagineMedianMinimumMaximumMg/100 g7.93.021.9
5 Raw Materials Reducing sugars are reactants in the Maillard reaction Avoiding glucose and especially fructose will minimise acrylamide formationBut/Sucrose (a non-reducing sugar) is already the sugar used as standard.
7 Acrylamide in product (g/kg) * Product CompositionEven minor ingredients can have a significant effectIngredients (2%)Acrylamide in product (g/kg) *Cocoa powder281Basic recipe (no ‘minor’ ingredients)334Cardamon377Honey417Ginger428*(1 Std. Dev. = 20)
8 Product Composition Raising agents (baking powder) can have an affect. Usually a combination of sodium and ammonium bicarbonate is usedAmmonium bicarbonate does contribute to acrylamide formation – but how? (15N-labelled bicarb. produces no 15N-labelled acrylamide)Replace ammonium with sodium bicarbonate?- Industrial feasibility not proven- Nutritional consequence of increased sodium
9 Process ManagementAcrylamide (g/kg)Baking time (min)
10 Process ManagementSignificant reductions have been achieved with crispbreads
11 Process ManagementAvoiding ‘rework’ in crispbread has no effect.
12 Finished Product Characteristics Baking biscuits to a lighter colour and higher moisture reduces acrylamide – but significantly changes the product and reduces shelf-life.
14 ConclusionsThe category ‘biscuits’ covers a wide range of products, recipes and processes; biscuits can contain 0 – 600ppb of acrylamide.Factors contributing to acrylamide formation have been identified, but there is no ‘quick fix’ for acrylamide reduction.Process changes for non-fermented crispbread manufacture have reduced AA levels by 75%.