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The voice of the European food and drink industry Acrylamide in Biscuits & Crispbread Geoff Thompson.

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Presentation on theme: "The voice of the European food and drink industry Acrylamide in Biscuits & Crispbread Geoff Thompson."— Presentation transcript:

1 The voice of the European food and drink industry Acrylamide in Biscuits & Crispbread Geoff Thompson

2 The voice of the European food and drink industry Introduction Industry is funding a number of research projects, including one at the Universities of Reading,Nottingham and Leeds in addition to carrying out its own work. The Maillard reaction is key in the formation of acrylamide In biscuits this involves asparagine in the flour reacting with sugars in the recipe

3 The voice of the European food and drink industry Kinetic Model (Wedzicha et al)

4 The voice of the European food and drink industry Agronomy Asparagine in flour varies significantly 26 samples from France,Poland,UK,Belgium,Finland,Czech rep. and Italy (2002 Harvest) gave the following results:- AsparagineMedianMinimumMaximum Mg/100 g

5 The voice of the European food and drink industry Raw Materials Reducing sugars are reactants in the Maillard reaction Avoiding glucose and especially fructose will minimise acrylamide formation But/ Sucrose (a non-reducing sugar) is already the sugar used as standard.

6 The voice of the European food and drink industry Product Composition CRISPBREAD CRACOTTE CREAM CRACKERS DIGESTIVE CREAMS FIG ROLLS RICH TEA DIGESTIVESSOFT COOKIES

7 The voice of the European food and drink industry Product Composition Even minor ingredients can have a significant effect *(1 Std. Dev. = 20) Ingredients (2%)Acrylamide in product ( g/kg) * Cocoa powder281 Basic recipe (no minor ingredients) 334 Cardamon377 Honey417 Ginger428

8 The voice of the European food and drink industry Product Composition Raising agents (baking powder) can have an affect. Usually a combination of sodium and ammonium bicarbonate is used Ammonium bicarbonate does contribute to acrylamide formation – but how? ( 15 N-labelled bicarb. produces no 15 N-labelled acrylamide) Replace ammonium with sodium bicarbonate? - Industrial feasibility not proven - Nutritional consequence of increased sodium

9 The voice of the European food and drink industry Process Management Acrylamide ( g/kg) Baking time (min)

10 The voice of the European food and drink industry Process Management Significant reductions have been achieved with crispbreads

11 The voice of the European food and drink industry Process Management Avoiding rework in crispbread has no effect.

12 The voice of the European food and drink industry Finished Product Characteristics Baking biscuits to a lighter colour and higher moisture reduces acrylamide – but significantly changes the product and reduces shelf-life.

13 The voice of the European food and drink industry Acrylamide ( g/kg) Colour Finished Product Characteristics

14 The voice of the European food and drink industry Conclusions The category biscuits covers a wide range of products, recipes and processes; biscuits can contain 0 – 600ppb of acrylamide. Factors contributing to acrylamide formation have been identified, but there is no quick fix for acrylamide reduction. Process changes for non-fermented crispbread manufacture have reduced AA levels by 75%.


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