Presentation on theme: "Unmanned Aircraft Systems EUROCAE Activities The European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment LOrganisation Européenne pour lEquipement de lAviation."— Presentation transcript:
Unmanned Aircraft Systems EUROCAE Activities The European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment LOrganisation Européenne pour lEquipement de lAviation Civile Daniel Hawkes Chairman WG-73 Gérard Mardiné Operations Sub-Group Michael Allouche Airworthiness Sub-Group
EASA Workshop: Paris, February This presentation provides a report on the work of EUROCAE WG-73. EUROCAE WG-73 meeting #3, January 2007 at Palm Coast, Florida in cooperation with FAA, NATO and RTCA SC-203
EASA Workshop: Paris, February The EUROCAE Organisation Established in 1963 as a European technical forum for administrations, airlines and industry. Prepares minimum performance specifications for airborne electronic equipment as a basis for EASA Technical Standard Orders (ETSO). Activities now extended to include complex CNS/ATM systems including their ground segment. EUROCAE is: recognised by the European Commission as the unique body competent for the standardisation and interoperability required for the Single European Sky concept; and acknowledged by ICAO which references its documents.
EASA Workshop: Paris, February EUROCAE Working Group 73 EUROCAE WG-73 was launched in April 2006 following earlier work by EUROCONTROL, NATO, and JAA. As the European UAS expert group, WG-73 will work with EASA in the development of airworthiness criteria and Special Conditions to supplement EASA A-NPA-16 Policy for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Certification. WG-73 cooperates with other bodies dealing with UAS. European Aviation Safety Agency
EASA Workshop: Paris, February WG-73 Membership EUROCONTROL provides the Chairman together with experts from its ATM, safety, security, human factors, military, legal, communications, radio spectrum, navigation, and research & development domains 130+ members
EASA Workshop: Paris, February WG-73 Task Leaders Subgroup #1: UAS Operations & Sense and Avoid Subgroup #2: Airworthiness & Continued Airworthiness Subgroup #3: Command and Control, Communications and Spectrum, & Security Gérard MardinéMichael Allouche Norbert Tränapp Chairman -Daniel Hawkes Secretary -Dewar Donnithorne-Tait Vice Chairman -Gérard Mardiné (Industry) Vice Chairman -Doug Davis (FAA) Terminology -Gilbert Amato RTCA SC-203 Focal Point -Ken Geiselhart EUROCONTROL – ICAO Focal Point -Holger Matthiesen Subgroup #4: Small UAS Focus Group < 150kg Joseph Barnard
EASA Workshop: Paris, February The Objectives A requirements framework that will support civilian UAS airworthiness certification and operational approvals. Safe operation within non-segregated airspace in a manner compatible with other airspace users. Compatibility with the existing ATM regulatory framework, existing ATM infrastructures, existing procedures, and without degrading ATM efficiency. Six deliverables with a total of 31 work packages have been defined to address the objectives.
Work Packages January WG73 General 0.3 Integration of Deliverable 3 Concept 0.1 Terminology 0.2 Deliverable 2 Work Plan 0.4 Integration of Deliverable 4 CC & C Systems 0.5 Integration of Deliverable 5 Sense & Avoid 0.6 Integration of Deliverable 6 ATM Issues 0.7 Small UAS < 150kg 1 Operations 1.2 UAS Operations Risk assessment 1.3 Identify separation provision requirements 1.4 Identify avoidance of mid-air collisions related requirements 1.8 UAS ATM Issues 1.1 Classes of UAS Operations 1.6 Propose Complementary Regulations & Standards based on Gap Analysis 1.5 Identify other required functions & related requirements 1.7 Management Synthesis 3 Command, Control, Communications, Spectrum & Security (C3SS) 3.1 Data Aspects of Command & Control 3.2 UAS Radio Spectrum Requirements 3.3 UAS Physical Security 3.4 UAS ATM Issues 3.5 UAS Data Link Security 2.1 UAS Overall Safety Objective & Airworthiness Categories 2.3 EASA Certification Specification Tailoring Guidelines 2.4 UAS Safety Objectives and criteria (1309) 2.5 Sense & Avoid Airworthiness Aspects 2.8 Continued Airworthiness, Maintenance 2.6 Command & Control Airworthiness Aspects 2.7 Emergency Recovery 2.10 Control Station & HMI 2.9 Security Features 2.11 Launch & Recovery 2.12 Automatic Take off & Landing 2 Airworthiness
EASA Workshop: Paris, February Deliverables requested from WG-73 Deliverable 1. UAS related elements regarding the Operational Concept. A preliminary inventory of airworthiness certification and operational approval items to be addressed. Deliverable 2. Work Plan. Identifies work packages and timescales to guide the future activities of WG-73. Completed January 2007 Issued May 2007
EASA Workshop: Paris, February Deliverable 3. A Concept for UAS Airworthiness Certification and Operational Approval in the Context of Non-segregated Airspace. A document in four volumes intended to assist development of recommendations and a requirements framework for civilian UAS. Deliverables (2) Volume 1 General Radio Spectrum Communications Security In production Preliminary Draft: 1 st quarter 2008 Issue 1: 4 th quarter of Volume 2 Operations Sense & Avoid Volume 3 Airworthiness Command & Control Volume 4 Small UAS < 150kg
EASA Workshop: Paris, February Deliverables (3) Deliverable 4. UAS Communication, Command & Control Systems. Requirements for communication, command & control systems including autonomous operation. Deliverable 5. UAS Sense and Avoid Systems. Functional requirements for sense and avoid systems. Deliverable 6. ATM Compatibility Issues. Aspects of UAS normal and abnormal operations requiring special ATM consideration. Potential solutions to assist ATM compatibility development. Initial studies started. Now discussing with RTCA. Ongoing activity.
EASA Workshop: Paris, February Operational Approval Several different types of UAS operation can be expected for which related conditions for operating approval can be published. The group is considering definitions for up to six classes of operation: Each related to ATM (airspace classification, flight rules, rules of the air) and UAS modes of operation; and To offer adapted operating approval standards. Scope will address all operational aspects, including: Flight in non-segregated airspace, UAS crew qualification and training, UAS operators organisation. Where required, UAS operating certificates can be granted to operators that demonstrate ability to comply with the operating conditions.
EASA Workshop: Paris, February Safety of UAS Operations, including safety of the other airspace users, is considered paramount: A safety approach is being progressively defined. Safety objectives must be proposed for safety critical functions. The present manned aviation system, including ATM, is considered as the frame for UAS introduction: recognising that adaptations may be needed and justified; and that ongoing developments have to be monitored (e.g. SES / SESAR). Operational Fundamentals
EASA Workshop: Paris, February A phased development of the standards is promoted consistent with the expected phased introduction of non- segregated UAS operations; In order not to restrict or delay initial UAS operational capability because of some complex issues, for example; Standards for UAS flight in non-segregated airspace are expected before those for UAS non-segregated aerodrome operations. Operational Fundamentals (2)
EASA Workshop: Paris, February The issue is how to define the functional perimeter of a UAS physical system equivalent to the manned aircraftsee & avoid principle and its rules for the purposes of traffic separation and mid-air collision avoidance. Recognising that different notions are involved (principles, rules, functions, physical systems), the initial intent is to remain as far as possible at the functional level and to issue functional requirements or recommendations. Compatibility with a safety approach. Independence from technological solutions. A reliable solution could also benefit manned aviation. WG-73 is discussing with RTCA SC-203 how the required functionality, safety, performance, and interoperability requirements could be developed jointly with the objective of achieving a common technical standard. Sense and Avoid
EASA Workshop: Paris, February UAS Airworthiness Michael Allouche WG-73 Sub-Group #2 UAS Airworthiness
EASA Workshop: Paris, February Airworthiness Certification Many types of UAS could be available with a large variation in weight, size, performance, and means of control, and kinds of operation. UAS Type Certification categories and appropriate safety objectives need to be defined with related certification requirements. Generic Special Conditions & Interpretive materials to be proposed for specific issues: e.g. UAS Safety Assessment, Sense and Avoid, Command and Control, Control Station, Automatic Take-off & Landing.
EASA CRD Topics WG73 Support specifically requested Related SG2 Work Package Role of EASA and development of a comprehensive framework for UAV regulations 2.3 UAV below 150 Kg See SG4 UAV or UAS? Coordination with military working group on UAV & USAR 2.1, 2.3, 2.4 & others Conventional versus safety target approach for certification 2.1,2.3 Total system approach as proposed by Sweden The two alternatives for selecting the manned CS.+2.1 Sense and Avoid+2.5 UAV system safety analysis+2.1, 2.4 Security See SG3 Need for DOA Certificate of airworthiness and control stations 2.10 Environment Additional Special Conditions (C3, Control Station, Autonomy, Emergency) +2.10, 2.6, 2.7
EASA Workshop: Paris, February Communications & Security Daniel Hawkes Chairman WG-73
EASA Workshop: Paris, February Command and Control There can be a trade-off between the capacity of the flight control data link and the autonomous capability of the UA. Security of the Command and Control link is considered mandatory (equivalent to locked cockpit door). Means of communication and phraseology will need to be compatible with the applicable ATC environment. Issues include: The degree of autonomy of the UA; Compatibility with the evolving ATM; The capacity, integrity, redundancy and security of flight control data links; Control station: human-machine interface, security measures; Data synchronisation at control station handover; (normal and abnormal conditions); Support tools for mission planning; and Personnel training and qualification.
EASA Workshop: Paris, February Radio Spectrum An ITU allocation of radio spectrum is needed for a secure Command and Control link that will support safe civilian UAS operation in non-segregated airspace. WG-73 is supporting EUROCONTROL, ICAO, FAA and RTCA in a team effort to develop a technical case to bid for UAS spectrum allocation at the 2011 World Radio Conference. For this purpose, information is being obtained about UAS communication characteristics that involve command, control, UA flight and system monitoring, and relay of air traffic communications. The operational robustness of dedicated security measures for the link, and the impact on required frequency bandwidth, are under investigation to provide a consolidated input at WRC 2011.
EASA Workshop: Paris, February World Radio Conference 2007 Resolution 421, adopted at ITU WRC 2007, states: Necessary studies leading to technical, regulatory, and operational recommendations to the Conference, enabling that Conference to decide on appropriate allocations for the operation of UAS need to be conducted in time for WRC And for the preliminary agenda for WRC-2015: to consider spectrum requirements and possible allocations in the radio determination service to support the operation of UAS in non-segregated airspace.
EASA Workshop: Paris, February WG-73 is addressing UAS security in three work packages: Airworthiness of Security Features; Physical Security; Communications Security and Electronic Security. Cooperation has been established with WG-72 Aeronautical Systems Security. WG-73 is applying the WG-72 security management methodology to ensure consistency between the two groups. Security
EASA Workshop: Paris, February Wherever appropriate, existing security standards for manned aircraft are being adopted. The WG-73 security work is focused on those aspects particular to UAS. National strategies for security of UA less than 150kg and for model aircraft are being reviewed also to provide additional context to the WG-73 work. The intent is to propose policy, guidance, and requirements, as appropriate, to ensure an adequate level of security so that unmanned aircraft might be safely operated only by authorised personnel with a minimal risk of accidental or deliberate intrusion and disturbance. Security (2)
EASA Workshop: Paris, February The information in this presentation references draft material for use by EUROCAE WG-73 and should not be regarded as statements of EUROCAE policy unless approved by the Council. The European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment 102, rue Etienne Dolet, Malakoff, France Tel.: Thank you for your attention Next meeting: WG-73 Meeting #6. February 12 th – 14 th 2008 in Brussels. Main agenda items: EASA A-NPA 16/2005 / CRD Progress Deliverable 3: Concept Document.