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Unmanned Aircraft Systems

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Presentation on theme: "Unmanned Aircraft Systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unmanned Aircraft Systems
The European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment L’Organisation Européenne pour l’Equipement de l’Aviation Civile Unmanned Aircraft Systems EUROCAE Activities Daniel Hawkes Chairman WG-73 Gérard Mardiné Operations Sub-Group Michael Allouche Airworthiness Sub-Group

2 This presentation provides a report on the work of EUROCAE WG-73.
EUROCAE WG-73 meeting #3, January 2007 at Palm Coast, Florida in cooperation with FAA, NATO and RTCA SC-203 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

3 The EUROCAE Organisation
Established in 1963 as a European technical forum for administrations, airlines and industry. Prepares minimum performance specifications for airborne electronic equipment as a basis for EASA Technical Standard Orders (ETSO). Activities now extended to include complex CNS/ATM systems including their ground segment. EUROCAE is: recognised by the European Commission as the unique body competent for the standardisation and interoperability required for the Single European Sky concept; and acknowledged by ICAO which references its documents. EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

4 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008
EUROCAE Working Group 73 EUROCAE WG-73 was launched in April 2006 following earlier work by EUROCONTROL, NATO, and JAA. As the European UAS expert group, WG-73 will work with EASA in the development of airworthiness criteria and Special Conditions to supplement EASA A-NPA-16 Policy for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Certification. WG-73 cooperates with other bodies dealing with UAS. European Aviation Safety Agency EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

5 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008
WG-73 Membership 130+ members EUROCONTROL provides the Chairman together with experts from its ATM, safety, security, human factors, military, legal, communications, radio spectrum, navigation, and research & development domains EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

6 WG-73 Task Leaders Subgroup #1: UAS Operations & Sense and Avoid
Chairman - Daniel Hawkes Secretary - Dewar Donnithorne-Tait Vice Chairman - Gérard Mardiné (Industry) Doug Davis (FAA) Terminology - Gilbert Amato RTCA SC-203 Focal Point - Ken Geiselhart EUROCONTROL – ICAO Focal Point - Holger Matthiesen Subgroup #1: UAS Operations & Sense and Avoid Subgroup #2: Airworthiness Continued Airworthiness Subgroup #3: Command and Control, Communications and Spectrum, & Security Gérard Mardiné Michael Allouche Norbert Tränapp Subgroup #4: Small UAS Focus Group < 150kg Joseph Barnard EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

7 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008
The Objectives A requirements framework that will support civilian UAS airworthiness certification and operational approvals. Safe operation within non-segregated airspace in a manner compatible with other airspace users. Compatibility with the existing ATM regulatory framework, existing ATM infrastructures, existing procedures, and without degrading ATM efficiency. Six deliverables with a total of 31 work packages have been defined to address the objectives. EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

8 Command, Control, Communications, Spectrum & Security (C3SS)
WG73 General 0.3 Integration of Deliverable 3 Concept 0.1 Terminology 0.2 Deliverable 2 Work Plan 0.4 Integration of Deliverable 4 CC & C Systems 0.5 Integration of Deliverable 5 Sense & Avoid 0.6 Integration of Deliverable 6 ATM Issues 0.7 Small UAS < 150kg 1 Operations 1.2 UAS Operations Risk assessment 1.3 Identify separation provision requirements 1.4 Identify avoidance of mid-air collisions related requirements 1.8 UAS ATM Issues 1.1 Classes of UAS Operations Propose Complementary Regulations & Standards based on Gap Analysis 1.5 Identify other required functions & related requirements 1.7 Management Synthesis 2.1 UAS Overall Safety Objective & Airworthiness Categories 2.3 EASA Certification Specification Tailoring Guidelines 2.4 UAS Safety Objectives and criteria (“1309”) 2.5 Sense & Avoid Airworthiness Aspects 2.8 Continued Airworthiness, Maintenance 2.6 Command & Control Airworthiness Aspects 2.7 Emergency Recovery Control Station & HMI 2.9 Security Features Launch & Recovery Automatic Take off & Landing 2 Airworthiness 3 Command, Control, Communications, Spectrum & Security (C3SS) Data Aspects of Command & Control UAS Radio Spectrum Requirements UAS Physical Security 3.4 UAS ATM Issues 3.5 UAS Data Link Security Work Packages January 2008

9 Deliverables requested from WG-73
Deliverable 1. UAS related elements regarding the Operational Concept. A preliminary inventory of airworthiness certification and operational approval items to be addressed. Deliverable 2. Work Plan. Identifies work packages and timescales to guide the future activities of WG-73. Completed January 2007 Issued May 2007 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

10 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008
Deliverables (2) Volume 1 General Radio Spectrum Communications Security Deliverable 3. A Concept for UAS Airworthiness Certification and Operational Approval in the Context of Non-segregated Airspace. A document in four volumes intended to assist development of recommendations and a requirements framework for civilian UAS. Volume 2 Operations Sense & Avoid Volume 3 Airworthiness Command & Control In production Preliminary Draft: 1st quarter 2008 Issue 1: 4th quarter of 2008. Volume 4 Small UAS < 150kg EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

11 Deliverables (3) Deliverable UAS Communication, Command & Control Systems. Requirements for communication, command & control systems including autonomous operation. Deliverable 5. UAS Sense and Avoid Systems. Functional requirements for sense and avoid systems. Deliverable 6. ATM Compatibility Issues. Aspects of UAS normal and abnormal operations requiring special ATM consideration. Potential solutions to assist ATM compatibility development. Initial studies started. Now discussing with RTCA. Ongoing activity. EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

12 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008
UAS Operations Gérard Mardiné WG-73 Sub-Group #1 UAS Operations EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

13 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008
Operational Approval Several different types of UAS operation can be expected for which related conditions for operating approval can be published. The group is considering definitions for up to six classes of operation: Each related to ATM (airspace classification, flight rules, rules of the air) and UAS modes of operation; and To offer adapted operating approval standards. Scope will address all operational aspects, including: Flight in non-segregated airspace, UAS crew qualification and training, UAS operator’s organisation. Where required, UAS operating certificates can be granted to operators that demonstrate ability to comply with the operating conditions. EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

14 Operational Fundamentals
Safety of UAS Operations, including safety of the other airspace users, is considered paramount: A safety approach is being progressively defined. Safety objectives must be proposed for safety critical functions. The present manned aviation system, including ATM, is considered as the frame for UAS introduction: recognising that adaptations may be needed and justified; and that ongoing developments have to be monitored (e.g. SES / SESAR). EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

15 Operational Fundamentals (2)
A phased development of the standards is promoted consistent with the expected phased introduction of non-segregated UAS operations; In order not to restrict or delay initial UAS operational capability because of some complex issues, for example; Standards for UAS flight in non-segregated airspace are expected before those for UAS non-segregated aerodrome operations. EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

16 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008
Sense and Avoid The issue is how to define the functional perimeter of a UAS physical system equivalent to the manned aircraft ‘see & avoid’ principle and its rules for the purposes of traffic separation and mid-air collision avoidance. Recognising that different notions are involved (principles, rules, functions, physical systems), the initial intent is to remain as far as possible at the functional level and to issue functional requirements or recommendations. Compatibility with a safety approach. Independence from technological solutions. A reliable solution could also benefit manned aviation. WG-73 is discussing with RTCA SC-203 how the required functionality, safety, performance, and interoperability requirements could be developed jointly with the objective of achieving a common technical standard. EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

17 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008
UAS Airworthiness Michael Allouche WG-73 Sub-Group #2 UAS Airworthiness EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

18 Airworthiness Certification
Many types of UAS could be available with a large variation in weight, size, performance, and means of control, and kinds of operation. UAS Type Certification categories and appropriate safety objectives need to be defined with related certification requirements. Generic Special Conditions & Interpretive materials to be proposed for specific issues: e.g. UAS Safety Assessment, Sense and Avoid, Command and Control, Control Station, Automatic Take-off & Landing. EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

19 Airworthiness Certification / Work Plan Approach
EASA A-NPA 16/2005 UAS Type Certification Basis Definition : (1) Select & Tailor Manned CS (2) System Safety Objectives & Criteria (3) Special Conditions (Control Station, C3 etc…) Eurocae WG-73 SG2 Work Packages Generic Airworthiness Criteria & Recommendations Relating to (1) & (2) & (3) INPUTS / INTERFACES / COORDINATION: SG1 & SG3 & SG4 JAA-EUROCONTROL TF report / EASA A-NPA 16/2005 / CRD FAA Policies USAR/STANAG 4671 RTCA SC 203 DO-304 & WG1 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

20 WG73 Support specifically requested Related SG2 Work Package
EASA CRD Topics WG73 Support specifically requested Related SG2 Work Package Role of EASA and development of a comprehensive framework for UAV regulations 2.3 UAV below 150 Kg See SG4 UAV or UAS? Coordination with military working group on UAV & USAR 2.1, 2.3, 2.4 & others Conventional versus safety target approach for certification 2.1,2.3 Total system approach as proposed by Sweden The two alternatives for selecting the manned CS. + 2.1 Sense and Avoid 2.5 UAV system safety analysis 2.1, 2.4 Security See SG3 Need for DOA Certificate of airworthiness and control stations 2.10 Environment Additional Special Conditions (C3, Control Station, Autonomy, Emergency) 2.10, 2.6, 2.7

21 Communications & Security
Daniel Hawkes Chairman WG-73 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

22 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008
Command and Control There can be a trade-off between the capacity of the flight control data link and the autonomous capability of the UA. Security of the Command and Control link is considered mandatory (equivalent to locked cockpit door). Means of communication and phraseology will need to be compatible with the applicable ATC environment. Issues include: The degree of autonomy of the UA; Compatibility with the evolving ATM; The capacity, integrity, redundancy and security of flight control data links; Control station: human-machine interface, security measures; Data synchronisation at control station handover; (normal and abnormal conditions); Support tools for mission planning; and Personnel training and qualification. EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

23 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008
Radio Spectrum An ITU allocation of radio spectrum is needed for a secure Command and Control link that will support safe civilian UAS operation in non-segregated airspace. WG-73 is supporting EUROCONTROL, ICAO, FAA and RTCA in a team effort to develop a technical case to bid for UAS spectrum allocation at the 2011 World Radio Conference. For this purpose, information is being obtained about UAS communication characteristics that involve command, control, UA flight and system monitoring, and relay of air traffic communications. The operational robustness of dedicated security measures for the link, and the impact on required frequency bandwidth, are under investigation to provide a consolidated input at WRC 2011. EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

24 World Radio Conference 2007
Resolution 421, adopted at ITU WRC 2007, states: Necessary studies leading to technical, regulatory, and operational recommendations to the Conference, enabling that Conference to decide on appropriate allocations for the operation of UAS need to be conducted in time for WRC 2011. And for the preliminary agenda for WRC-2015: to consider spectrum requirements and possible allocations in the radio determination service to support the operation of UAS in non-segregated airspace. EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

25 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008
Security WG-73 is addressing UAS security in three work packages: Airworthiness of Security Features; Physical Security; Communications Security and Electronic Security. Cooperation has been established with WG-72 Aeronautical Systems Security. WG-73 is applying the WG-72 security management methodology to ensure consistency between the two groups. EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

26 EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008
Security (2) Wherever appropriate, existing security standards for manned aircraft are being adopted. The WG-73 security work is focused on those aspects particular to UAS. National strategies for security of UA less than 150kg and for model aircraft are being reviewed also to provide additional context to the WG-73 work. The intent is to propose policy, guidance, and requirements, as appropriate, to ensure an adequate level of security so that unmanned aircraft might be safely operated only by authorised personnel with a minimal risk of accidental or deliberate intrusion and disturbance. EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008

27 The European Organisation for
Next meeting: WG-73 Meeting #6. February 12th – 14th 2008 in Brussels. Main agenda items: EASA A-NPA 16/2005 / CRD Progress Deliverable 3: Concept Document. Thank you for your attention The European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment 102, rue Etienne Dolet, Malakoff, France Tel.: The information in this presentation references draft material for use by EUROCAE WG-73 and should not be regarded as statements of EUROCAE policy unless approved by the Council. EASA Workshop: Paris, February 2008 280108

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