Presentation on theme: "Slide Headline Elbit UAV Systems Certification and Airworthiness of UAS Methodology and Experience."— Presentation transcript:
Slide Headline Elbit UAV Systems Certification and Airworthiness of UAS Methodology and Experience
Contents Design for AW, safety & certification ESL past & present experience Background for civil certification in Israel New legal situation Civil Methodology of certification in Israel Baselines of approval granting Experience: Special Permits for UAS Type Hermes 450 ® Skylark I ® Skylark II ® WK approval process Past experience with foreign authorities
Design for Airworthiness, Safety & Certification ESL past experience
ESL past experience Standards for Previous Design The Hermes ® Family was developed to comply with existing manned A/C standards & procedures. Tailoring of these standards was required for UAVs. MIL-STDs were mainly in use (IAF requirements).
Experience with IAF Hundreds of airworthiness related documents were prepared : Safety & Reliability assessment reports. Analysis reports (Loads,Thermal, Flutter. electrical loads.) Qualification test reports performed at LRU Level POD test reports for subsystem. Load test reports for major structural components. Engine endurance test reports. EMI & RFI test reports at LRU and at UAV level. Software versions ATP reports. AV & FLT ATP (tests with the real HW) Flight test reports : Preliminary report after each flight. Malfunction analysis reports. Test phase reports. Subsystems level test reports (Avionic, Flight control, Electrical power…) Final platform test report. Final system test report.
Standards for Present Design The growing interest in UAVs around the world raised the need for UAV defined standards. Standardization in progress A new set of design standards was adopted by ESL for present design. STANAG 4671 are related as the certification basis, with reference to the more formal CS-23, tailored for UAS for medium UAS Extensive safety analysis and robust design for mini and small UAS
Background for civil certification in Israel UAS Civil Certification Status
Background The certification methodology of UAS is presently in a transition stage. The fast development of UAS raises a requirement to operate them in a non-segregated airspace The regulatory framework is not yet mature Regulations and procedures are still in development through internationally harmonized efforts. National approvals are granted for various systems
Status in the World ICAO UASGG Unmanned Aircraft Systems Study Group NATO USAR STANAG 4671 USA FAA RTCA SC 203 ASTM NTSB Europe EASA A-NPA EUROCAE WG 73 EUROCONTROL EDA
Participation in International Forums Elbit Systems is an active member in EUROCAE WG-73 Scope: Setting Standards for Certification and Operation of UAV Established: April 2006 Participation in SG2 subgroup on Airworthiness Leading Restricted Type Certificatate Working Paper Leading Launch and Recovery Working Paper Member in USA forums RTCA SC 203 ASTM F38 ESL has Launched a development effort in the area of Sense & Avoid.
Status in Israel All civil flights in Israel are under the jurisdiction of the Civil Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI) The oversight of the majority of the sky is done by the Israeli Air Force (IAF), except: A corridor from Tel Aviv to Jordan A corridor from Tel Aviv to Eilat Prior to 1/2/2007 all UAS flew under the jurisdiction of the IAF Since 1/2/2007 the UAS that are not direct IAF interest (mission or development) have to fly under the jurisdiction of CAAI
New Legal Situation in Israel Civil UAS Certification Committee (CUC2) has been appointed by General Director of the Ministry of Transport General Director of the Ministry of Defense The Committee is formed from specialists that have ample UAS and aeronautics background from IAF and Aeronautical Industry The Committee Conducts technical surveys Recommends approvals The approvals are endorsed by the head of CAAI The approvals contain operational limitations in order to ensure that the safety level of the ongoing civil operations is not diminished by the UAS presence
Civil Methodology of certification in Israel Methodology for Civil Certification in Israel
UAS Certification Procedure Civil UAS Certification Committee (CUC2) has issued a procedure for Certification and approval of changes for UAS Classification Procedures for systems with flight experience prior to the nomination of the committee Experience Safety Analysis Procedures for new systems
Classification Classification by service experience Experimental configuration – less than 10 flight hours Maturation configuration - less than 2000 flight hours and 100 successful take-offs and landings Proven configuration Classification by weight Mini1-14 kg Small kg Medium kg Heavyabove 2000kg Classification by first flight date Before 1/2/2007: Approval based on experience and safety assessment After 1/2/2007: Approval based on certification basis and safety assessment
Procedure for New Systems Systematic certification Methodology Basis of Certification: USAR STANAG 4671 Exemptions Equivalent Level of Safety Findings Special Conditions (where required) List of Required Documents Company Approval First Flight Maturation Configuration Proven Configuration
USAR STANAG 4671 Adoption of USAR STANAG 4671 as Basis of Certification for Medium UAS: WK Complies with few exceptions Compliance with Do 178B and Do 254 as required by USAR 1309 and ACM 1309 Hermes 900 ® Designed to comply Gap Analysis for Legacy Software to demonstrate equivalent level of safety to 1309 requirements
Experience with CAAI ESL Experience with CAAI
Elbit Systems CAAI Approvals UAS Design Organization UAS Operation Organization UAS Pilots UAS Special Flight Permit for specific UAS UAS Special Permit for UAS Type Special Permit for UAS for Tests Flights and Demonstrations only
Specific UAS Special Flight Permits Type of ApprovalDate of First FlightWight ClassType Special Permit for UAS Type Proven configuration Before 1/2/2007Mini ~5 Kg Skylark I ® Special Permit for UAS Type Maturation configuration Before 1/2/2007 Changes after 1/2/2007 Small 50 Kg- 60 Kg Skylark II ® Skylark IIA ® MaturationConfigura tion After 1/2/2007Small 90 Kg Hermes 90 ® Special Permit for UAS Type Proven configuration Before 1/2/2007Medium ~ 450 Kg Hermes 450 ® Hermes 450J ® Flight permit Maturation configuration After 1/2/2007 First flight: 16 April 2008 Medium ~ 480 Kg WK 450
Skylark I ® Fully autonomous flight Gross weight < 5kg Wing span - ~2m Electric motor Operational Flight alt ft above ground Max Alt – 15,000 above sea level Airspeed Kts. Endurance – up to 90min Operational Communication Range > 10 km Automatic take-off (hand, bungee or mini launcher launch) Automatic and precise landing (airbag recovery) Deployment < 10 min Inaudible - 100m AGL
Skylark II ® Fully autonomous flight modes Gross weight – 60 Kg Wing span – 6.5m Electric motor Flight alt – ft AGL Flight Ceiling – ft ASL Airspeed Kts Endurance – more than 4 h Flight range - 60 km Inaudible from 500 ft AGL Automatic take-off vehicle/trailer mounted launcher Automatic landing
Hermes 450 ® Special Permit for UAS Type Elbit Systems Hermes 450 is the first UAS to fly under a permit issued by CAAI, the Civil Aviation Authority of Israel. CAAI has granted Elbit Systems a Special Permit for Unmanned Aircraft System Type for the Hermes 450 and an authorization to operate, under limiting conditions, from specified airfields. The permit has been granted upon a technical survey conducted by the UAS Committee, endorsed by Mr. Udi Zohar, head of CAAI.
Hermes 450 ® Special Permit (Contd) Permit Basis Excellent in service experience and record of the Hermes 450 operated by the IDF, for more then 65,000 flight hours (at the time of approval) Extensive safety analysis. Operational Requirements and Limitations Applied in order to ensure that the safety level of the ongoing civil operations is not diminished by the UAS presence Civil flights priority in the specific CTR Approved transfer route from the CTR to the military controlled airspace Implementation of IFF mode3 & C.
Hermes 450 ® Special Permit (Contd) The UAS has been registered and received 4X call signs. Routine Hermes 450 flights are processed and issued under civil aviation operational procedure. As the UAS evolves various changes have been approved : H450J- approved H450W- under approval process
WK Approval First flight – 15 April 2008 after 1/2/2007 First stage: Experimental configuration- first flights Maturation Configuration- for flight tests only 60 flights performed Certification basis: USAR STANAG extensive compliance unless replaced by UK requirements. RTCA/DO - 178B Software Considerations in Airborne Systems RTCA/DO Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware UK airworthiness requirements JSP553 – Military Airworthiness Regulations. DEFSTAN part 9 (Airworthiness) DEFSTAN (Technical Procedures) DEFSTAN Issue 3 (Safety) Extensive Safety Analysis Ongoing process of selected reports approval Complementing effort with UK Military Certification
Past experience with foreign authorities
Previous Approvals FAA COA Certificate of Authorization to Department of Homeland Security for Hermes 450 ® Flight - June 2004 UK Flight Authorization for Aberport UAV Flying Demonstration for Hermes 450 ® - August 2005 UK Ministry of defense - Design Approval for Military Aircraft and Airborne Equipment - DAOS- for design, development, manufacture, modification and flight test of unmanned vehicle systems- Nov 2006, updated February 2007 Approvals for military missions: IDF, UK and others RTS for H450 ® in the UK (GTOL upgrade in process).
Summary UAS Design Organization UAS Operation Organization UAS Pilots UAS Special Flight Permit for specific systems Hermes 450C ® : basic configuration and derivatives Hermes 450J ® Hermes 450WK - permit for flight tests and activity for full certification Skylark 1 ® Skylark 2 ® with derivatives Skylark 2A ® Hermes 90 ® Hermes 900 ® - at the stage of application Hermes 450W ® – approval for testing configuration Choice of highest level of airworthiness requirements USAR for medium UAS System Safety with emphasis on SW and FW development for mini & small UAS Full collaboration with Israeli Authorities Certification of products Feedback to regulatory effort Active participation in International Forums