Presentation on theme: "Certification and Airworthiness of UAS Methodology and Experience"— Presentation transcript:
1 Certification and Airworthiness of UAS Methodology and Experience Slide HeadlineElbit UAV SystemsCertification and Airworthiness of UAS Methodology and Experience
2 Design for AW, safety & certification ContentsDesign for AW, safety & certificationESL past & present experienceBackground for civil certification in IsraelNew legal situationCivil Methodology of certification in IsraelBaselines of approval grantingExperience:Special Permits for UAS TypeHermes 450 ®Skylark I ®Skylark II ®WK approval processPast experience with foreign authorities
3 Design for Airworthiness, Safety & Certification ESL past experience
4 Standards for Previous Design ESL past experienceStandards for Previous DesignThe Hermes® Family was developed to comply with existing manned A/C standards & procedures.Tailoring of these standards was required for UAV’s.MIL-STD’s were mainly in use (IAF requirements).
5 Hundreds of airworthiness related documents were prepared : Experience with IAFHundreds of airworthiness related documents were prepared :Safety & Reliability assessment reports.Analysis reports (Loads ,Thermal, Flutter. electrical loads.)Qualification test reports performed at LRU LevelPOD test reports for subsystem.Load test reports for major structural components.Engine endurance test reports .EMI & RFI test reports at LRU and at UAV level .Software versions ATP reports.AV & FLT ATP (tests with the real HW)Flight test reports :Preliminary report after each flight .Malfunction analysis reports .Test phase reports .Subsystems level test reports (Avionic , Flight control, Electrical power…)Final platform test report .Final system test report .
7 Standards for Present Design The growing interest in UAVs around the world raised the need for UAV defined standards.Standardization in progressA new set of design standards was adopted by ESL for present design.STANAG 4671 are related as the certification basis, with reference to the more formal CS-23, tailored for UAS for medium UASExtensive safety analysis and robust design for mini and small UAS
8 Background for civil certification in Israel UAS Civil Certification Status
9 National approvals are granted for various systems BackgroundThe certification methodology of UAS is presently in a transition stage.The fast development of UAS raises a requirement to operate them in a non-segregated airspaceThe regulatory framework is not yet matureRegulations and procedures are still in development through internationally harmonized efforts.National approvals are granted for various systems
11 Participation in International Forums Elbit Systems is an active member inEUROCAE WG-73Scope: Setting Standards for Certification and Operation of UAVEstablished: April 2006Participation in SG2 subgroup on AirworthinessLeading “Restricted Type Certificatate” Working PaperLeading “Launch and Recovery” Working PaperMember in USA forumsRTCA SC 203ASTM F38ESL has Launched a development effort in the area of Sense & Avoid.
12 Prior to 1/2/2007 all UAS flew under the jurisdiction of the IAF Status in IsraelAll civil flights in Israel are under the jurisdiction of the Civil Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI)The oversight of the majority of the sky is done by the Israeli Air Force (IAF), except:A corridor from Tel Aviv to JordanA corridor from Tel Aviv to EilatPrior to 1/2/2007 all UAS flew under the jurisdiction of the IAFSince 1/2/2007 the UAS that are not direct IAF interest (mission or development) have to fly under the jurisdiction of CAAI
13 New Legal Situation in Israel Civil UAS Certification Committee (CUC2) has been appointed byGeneral Director of the Ministry of TransportGeneral Director of the Ministry of DefenseThe Committee is formed from specialists that have ample UAS and aeronautics background from IAF and Aeronautical IndustryThe CommitteeConducts technical surveysRecommends approvalsThe approvals are endorsed by the head of CAAIThe approvals contain operational limitations in order to ensure that the safety level of the ongoing civil operations is not diminished by the UAS presence
14 Civil Methodology of certification in Israel Methodology for Civil Certification in Israel
15 UAS Certification Procedure Civil UAS Certification Committee (CUC2) has issued a procedure for“Certification and approval of changes for UAS ”ClassificationProcedures for systems with flight experience prior to the nomination of the committeeExperienceSafety AnalysisProcedures for new systems
16 Classification by service experience Experimental configuration – less than 10 flight hoursMaturation configuration - less than 2000 flight hours and 100 successful take-offs and landingsProven configurationClassification by weightMini 1-14 kgSmall kgMedium kgHeavy above 2000kgClassification by first flight dateBefore 1/2/2007: Approval based on experience and safety assessmentAfter 1/2/2007: Approval based on certification basis and safety assessment
17 Procedure for New Systems Systematic certification MethodologyBasis of Certification:USAR STANAG 4671ExemptionsEquivalent Level of Safety FindingsSpecial Conditions (where required)List of Required DocumentsCompany ApprovalFirst FlightMaturation ConfigurationProven Configuration
18 Adoption of USAR STANAG 4671 as Basis of Certification for Medium UAS: WKComplies with few exceptionsCompliance with Do 178B and Do 254 as required by USAR 1309 and ACM 1309Hermes 900 ®Designed to complyGap Analysis for Legacy Software to demonstrate equivalent level of safety to 1309 requirements
20 Elbit Systems CAAI Approvals UAS Design OrganizationUAS Operation OrganizationUAS PilotsUAS Special Flight Permit for specific UASUAS Special Permit for UAS TypeSpecial Permit for UAS for Tests Flights and Demonstrations only
21 Specific UAS Special Flight Permits Type of ApprovalDate of First FlightWight ClassTypeSpecial Permit for UAS TypeProven configurationBefore 1/2/2007Mini~5 KgSkylark I ®Maturation configurationChanges after 1/2/2007Small50 Kg- 60 KgSkylark II ®Skylark IIA ®MaturationConfigurationAfter 1/2/200790 KgHermes 90 ®Medium~ 450 KgHermes 450 ®Hermes 450J ®Flight permitFirst flight:16 April 2008~ 480 KgWK 450
22 Skylark I ® Fully autonomous flight Gross weight < 5kg Wing span - ~2mElectric motorOperational Flight alt ft above groundMax Alt – 15,000 above sea levelAirspeed Kts.Endurance – up to 90minOperational Communication Range > 10 kmAutomatic take-off (hand, bungee or mini launcher launch)Automatic and precise landing (airbag recovery)Deployment < 10 minInaudible - 100m AGL
23 Skylark II ® Fully autonomous flight modes Gross weight – 60 Kg Wing span – 6.5mElectric motorFlight alt – ft AGLFlight Ceiling – ft ASLAirspeed KtsEndurance – more than 4 hFlight range - 60 kmInaudible from 500 ft AGLAutomatic take-off vehicle/trailer mounted launcherAutomatic landing
24 Hermes 450 ® Special Permit for UAS Type Elbit Systems’ Hermes 450 is the first UAS to fly under a permit issued by CAAI, the Civil Aviation Authority of Israel.CAAI has granted Elbit Systems a ‘Special Permit for Unmanned Aircraft System Type’ for the Hermes 450 and an authorization to operate, under limiting conditions, from specified airfields.The permit has been granted upon a technical survey conducted by the UAS Committee, endorsed by Mr. Udi Zohar, head of CAAI.
25 Hermes 450 ® Special Permit (Cont’d) Permit BasisExcellent in service experience and record of the Hermes 450 operated by the IDF, for more then 65,000 flight hours (at the time of approval)Extensive safety analysis.Operational Requirements and LimitationsApplied in order to ensure that the safety level of the ongoing civil operations is not diminished by the UAS presenceCivil flights priority in the specific CTRApproved transfer route from the CTR to the military controlled airspaceImplementation of IFF mode3 & C.
26 Hermes 450 ® Special Permit (Cont’d) The UAS has been registered and received 4X call signs.Routine Hermes 450 flights are processed and issued under civil aviation operational procedure.As the UAS evolves various changes have been approved :H450J- approvedH450W- under approval process
27 WK Approval First flight – 15 April 2008 after 1/2/2007 First stage: Experimental configuration- first flightsMaturation Configuration- for flight tests only60 flights performedCertification basis:USAR STANAG extensive compliance unless replaced by UK requirements.RTCA/DO - 178B Software Considerations in Airborne SystemsRTCA/DO Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic HardwareUK airworthiness requirementsJSP553 – Military Airworthiness Regulations.DEFSTAN part 9 (Airworthiness)DEFSTAN (Technical Procedures)DEFSTAN Issue 3 (Safety)Extensive Safety AnalysisOngoing process of selected reports approvalComplementing effort with UK Military Certification
29 Previous ApprovalsFAA COA Certificate of Authorization to Department of Homeland Security for Hermes 450 ® Flight - June 2004UK Flight Authorization for Aberport UAV Flying Demonstration for Hermes 450 ® - August 2005UK Ministry of defense - Design Approval for Military Aircraft and Airborne Equipment - DAOS- for design, development, manufacture, modification and flight test of unmanned vehicle systems- Nov 2006, updated February 2007Approvals for military missions: IDF, UK and othersRTS for H450 ® in the UK (GTOL upgrade in process).
30 Summary UAS Design Organization UAS Operation Organization UAS Pilots UAS Special Flight Permit for specific systemsHermes 450C ® : basic configuration and derivativesHermes 450J ®Hermes 450WK - permit for flight tests and activity for full certificationSkylark 1 ®Skylark 2 ® with derivativesSkylark 2A ®Hermes 90 ®Hermes 900 ® - at the stage of applicationHermes 450W ® – approval for testing configurationChoice of highest level of airworthiness requirementsUSAR for medium UASSystem Safety with emphasis on SW and FW development for mini & small UASFull collaboration with Israeli AuthoritiesCertification of productsFeedback to regulatory effortActive participation in International Forums