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Second State of European Cities Report Report prepared for the European Commission, Directorate-General for Regional Policy under a contract following.

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Presentation on theme: "Second State of European Cities Report Report prepared for the European Commission, Directorate-General for Regional Policy under a contract following."— Presentation transcript:

1 Second State of European Cities Report Report prepared for the European Commission, Directorate-General for Regional Policy under a contract following a call for tenders Urban Audit Analysis II by RWI (Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung) Difu (German Institute for Urban Affairs) PRAC (Policy Research and Consultancy) NEA Transport Research and Training Essen, Berlin, Bad Soden, Zoetermeer, November 2010 Uwe Neumann, RWI Brussels, 29 June 2011

2 Introduction: Issues and approach City typology Urban Trends Results/Policy Implications 2 Contents

3 Issues of the report providing up-to-date policy-relevant information on urban characteristics and urban dynamics in Europe discussion of intermediate results with DG Regio, Eurostat, a panel of experts and a panel of representatives from all EU countries The key issues arise from the literature on i.urbanisation, ii.economic change and its impact on social cohesion, iii.the emergence of a knowledge economy, iv.governance of cities and regions. These issues correspond with the priorities for a reformed cohesion policy: i nnovation, climate change, migration, children, skills, ageing (Barca 2009) Introduction3

4 4 Question to panel members: Do you know any projects, publications or reports in your country where Urban Audit data was used? Own survey among 27 members of City Panel Introduction Results from Urban Audit City Panel Workshop with 30 city representatives in Berlin, March 2009 Further remarks Response rates vary to a high extent among countries and cities. National responsibility could be delegated to a small team instead of one person. Many workshop participants had not been using Urban Audit data so far. Urban Audit in general was assessed as useful, particularly for comparison between cities similar in size and characteristics.

5 City Typology

6 City typology Comparison of cities with similar basic characteristics Based on the Urban Audit update and revision of typology from first State of European Cities Report Statistical classification using a step-wise strategy of information compaction 6City typology

7 City typology – Indicators by UA Domain 7City typology F1-F4: Factors 1-4, = highest correlation with factor * Additional data (NUTS 3) ** Data from European Patent Authority Total resident population – F4 % of population < 5 – F2 % of population – F1 % of population > 75 – F1 Total population: core city/LUZ ratio – F1 (-) Population change (in %) – F2, F3 GDP per head in PPS* - F1 Patent intensity** - F1 % of employment in services – F1, F3 New businesses in % of all companies % of units providing ICT services – F1, F2 Unemployment rate – F1 (-) Prop. of working age population qualified at level 5 or 6 ISCED (university) – F3 ISCED 5-6 (university) students per 1000 inhabitants Annual cinema attendance per resident – F1 days PM10 concentrations >50 µg/m3 % of solid waste processed by landfill – F1 (-) Natural population change 2004 – F2 Murders and violent deaths per 1,000 inhabitants Multimodal accessibility (EU27=100) – F1 Population density – F4 DE SA TE EC CR EN TT

8 City types Own calculation based on the Urban Audit (2004) 8City typology

9 City types Own calculation based on the Urban Audit (2004) 9City typology A Principal Metropolises B Regional Centres C Smaller Centres D Towns & Cities of the Lagging Regions Urban Audit (EU) Urban Audit (non-EU) Size of circle is relative to population in core city* in ,000,000 1,000, , ,000 *Paris: Kernel

10 Urban Trends

11 Population … picture of urban growth in Europe is diverse. … urban population in Europe grew from 2001 to …fastest growth in largest and most prosperous urban regions. In Principal Metro- polises, growth was high in the outer urban zones. Cities in lagging regions have not yet managed to catch up. Urban Trends: Population11 Own calculation based on the Urban Audit (2001, 2004), 329 obs. (core cities), 294 obs. (LUZ) Population change by city type 2001 – 2004 in %

12 Population Urban Trends: Population12 Average annual population change in LUZ in %, by country, macro-region and city type

13 Population The first component of city growth is migration. Northern Europe: city growth corresponds with net migration Central Europe: cities lose population due to out-migration Western and Southern Europe: diverse picture The second component is natural population change. low urban birth rates in Northern, Western and Southern Europe, high urban birth rates in Central Europe city growth due to birth surpluses in peripheral regions cities of Western/Southern Europe and large cities of Central Europe: growth depends on attracting migrants, because there is a surplus of deaths over births. Urban Trends: Population13

14 Urban Trends: Economy14 Own calculation based on the Urban Audit (2004) and regional statistics from Eurostat (NUTS 3) GDP per head (in PPS) by country, macro-region and city type …disparity of wealth between macro-regions …concentration of wealth in capital cities …below-average prosperity in Smaller Centres (Type C) … low prosperity in Towns & Cities of Lagging Regions (Type D) Economy

15 Urban Trends: Economy15 Own calculation based on the Urban Audit (2004) Multi-modal accessibility 2004, deviation from the EU27 average in %

16 Urban Trends: Economy16 Own calculation based on the Urban Audit (2004) Tertiarisation Proportion of employment in the finance sector and in other services Core cities with >85% of employees in the service sector, 2004, in % …high concentration of services in large cities of Northern and Western Europe

17 17 Own calculation based on PATSTAT Patent intensity 10,000,000 1,000, , ,000 above below 1 Size of circle is relative to population in core city* in 2004 Urban Audit (EU) Urban Audit (non-EU) *Paris: Kernel Patent applications per 100,000 inhabitants, 2004 …innovation and prosperity combine Urban Trends: Economy

18 18 Own calculation based on the Urban Audit (2004) Share of foreigners By city type, 2004 (in %) The most prosperous cities attract the largest number of immigrants from foreign countries; international migration to peripheral locations is low. A Principal Metro- polises B Regional Centres C Smaller Centres Towns & Cities of the Lagging Regions D Urban Trends: Cultural Diversity

19 19 Unemployment rate 2004, in % Own calculation based on the Urban Audit (2004) Unemployment rate (2004) and change of unemployment rate in core cities and outer zones of LUZ Change of unemployment rate , in %-points Core Cities: dark colour Outer Zones: light colour In large cities unemployment concentrates in core cities, in small and peripheral cities in inner and outer zones. In the Towns and Cities of the Lagging Regions unemployment is high but decreased from 2001 and 2004, both in core cities and outer zones. Urban Trends: Social cohesion

20 20 Own calculation based on the Urban Audit (2004) Employment rate Ratio of employed persons to population of working age 2004 (in %) It is an urban paradox that in many cities throughout Europe, employment rates are below the national averages, while most jobs are concentrated in cities. Urban Trends: Social cohesion

21 21 Governance The term governance is widely used to refer to matters of both public administration and civic involvement. As an instrument to measure the capacity of municipal administration, the index of city powers as elaborated by the first State of European Cities report has been revised in this section. Cities with relatively large administrative powers draw their overall scope more from political autonomy than from sheer size or weight within countries. The proportion of municipal authority income derived from local taxation is therefore a highly relevant indicator of the scope of municipal authorities to engage in local governance processes. Urban Trends: Governance

22 22 Air quality Number of days PM 10 concentrations exceed 50 µg/m³ 2004 Own calculation based on the Urban Audit (2004) In Southern and Central Europe, at least half of the cities in each country report PM 10 concentrations above the limit of 50µg/m 3 on more than 50 days per year. Urban Trends: Environment

23 …diverse picture of population growth and decline European cities. Depending on fertility rates and migration flows, cities face challenges such as a shrinking and ageing population. …high concentration of economic prosperity in parts of Northern and Western Europe and in capital cities of most countries. The potential for growth exists across all types of territories. Cities are focal points of regional innovation networks. European policy can support favourable conditions for education, research and exchange particularly in cities. …urban paradox persists: jobs concentrate in cities, but many city residents do not participate in the labour market. Social inclusion is therefore a key priority of the urban dimension of cohesion policy. Results/Conclusions23 Selected results

24 Policy Implications …task of EU policy to support regions and cities in improving the conditions of life and work in densely populated areas. …support of cities in matching the supply of skills with labour market demands. …support of economic performance in smaller cities and more remote regions of Central Europe, so qualified people can find adequate job opportunities there. …support of smart specialisation, which seeks to identify and support the economic core activities of a region, i.e. focusing on endogenous potentials. …monitoring of the environmental situation in cities and support of cities/regions to overcome the paradox of affluence, i.e. the environmental impact of production. 24Results/Conclusions

25 European policy must be built on sound information about territorial diversity. Success of European policy depends on measures with an urban focus. Continuing efforts to improve knowledge about urban characteristics and trends are required. annual UA with reduced indicator set complete UA in three-year steps Large City Audit: reduced indicator set for all ~250 non-UA cities Urban Atlas, CARP 25 Implications for European city statistics Results/Conclusions

26 Full report available at: themes/urban/audit/index_en.htm Executive summary available in three languages DE, EN, FR


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