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1 AIDCO International Water Seminar, Nairobi 2010 Rural Water Supply in Chad 20 October 2010 Michael Rourke, DUE Tchad.

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Presentation on theme: "1 AIDCO International Water Seminar, Nairobi 2010 Rural Water Supply in Chad 20 October 2010 Michael Rourke, DUE Tchad."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 AIDCO International Water Seminar, Nairobi 2010 Rural Water Supply in Chad 20 October 2010 Michael Rourke, DUE Tchad

2 2 Long track record…… Water in the NIP: EDF 8; 28 M EDF 8; 28 M EDF 9; 50 (+2.5) M ongoing - NIP 273 M EDF 9; 50 (+2.5) M ongoing - NIP 273 M EDF 10, 80 (+10) M future - NIP 311 M EDF 10, 80 (+10) M future - NIP 311 M Classic project approach since the EDF 6, also used by other donors but besides the NIP there is also…. Regional Solar Programme EDF very successful since 1990s Regional Solar Programme EDF very successful since 1990s (+ 1 x Water Facility, 1 x Budget Lines and some involvement in projects from other sections, CBLT) Main other players: AfD, ADB, (KfW), UNICEF, NGOs but we are (by far) the most significant !Government a minor funder only!

3 3 Evolution of access to improved water source (infrastructure approach)

4 4 Chad – Regions Niger Libya Nigeria Cameroun CAR Sudan Chad = km 2 (approx 2x France) Population 11,2 M in km

5 5 Satellite view (with isohyets mm)

6 6 Step 1: Assessing requirements 1. Firm strategic basis SNRP2 (2008) and Water Master Plan 2. Ministry figures of rate of access to improved supplies by region 3. Political and other considerations 4. Coordination with other donors 5. Prepare CF

7 7 Step 2: Surveys, detailed requirements 1. Recruit consultants to be delegated responsibilities by the Water Ministry 2. Consultants dispatch teams to undertake studies and surveys in the regions, village by village to establish needs and eligibility 3. Populations from 300 to 1200 to benefit from hand pumps) 9th EDF 4. Populations to benefit (9th Reg, 10th EDF) from electric pumps + water towers

8 8 Step 3: Involve populations: i) Hand pumps 1. Pay FCFA towards costs of construction of borehole and pump (230 ) 2. Elections to establish committee to manage the pump(s) Association of Water Users 3. AWU sign agreement with the Ministry and open bank account 4. Collect payments and arrange for repairs when necessary ( FCFA 0,15 to 0,38 per family per month) 5. Liaise with the authorities and be focal point to disseminate information eg regarding sanitation practices

9 9 Typical hand pump (a)

10 10 Typical hand pump (b)

11 11 Step 3: Involve populations: ii) Electric pumps 1. Initial contribution of 750 to 1500 (to the maintenance pot) 2. Management committee formed 3. Sell water by volume (0,75 to 1,15 /m 3 ), therefore need monitors at all distribution points (costs about 20 % of revenue) 4. Guards required, and fenced enclosure to prevent theft of solar panels or generator (and or materials) maximum cost 40 / month 5. Regular payments to the Technical Support Group (about 10 percent of water sales) 6. May sign with « economic operator » to simplify management

12 12 Typical solar installation

13 13 Step 4: Follow up, reinforcement of activities 1. Survey and technical teams visit periodically, checking also on the status of bank accounts. 2. Discussions may consider how the money collected can be «re-invested » which can create a virtuous circle…, 2. Discussions may consider how the money collected can be «re-invested » which can create a virtuous circle…, 3. Can sometimes intervene before improper use of funds occurs

14 14 Functional organigram (governance structure for project approach)

15 15 Lessons learned: (i) governance 1. Involvement of beneficiary population is essential (financial and otherwise) 2. Paying for water (preferably by volume) is essential 3. Minimal government role (not much choice) The government can however effectively coordinate the donors and must be forced to do so 4. NGOs (argh!!!), must be forced to liaise with the ministry to ensure acivites are durable, to furnish data to update the statistics 5. Where competition from different water sources exist, try to have one committee managing a perimeter (avoid adjacent competing committees where possible) – decree is due 6. Women quite active within the committees, often treasurer, important role to play stopping kids damaging infrastructure and spreading word on hygiene etc (still not decision makers though) 7. Sanitation to be increasingly incorporated (Community Led Total Sanitation approach promoted particularly by UNICEF)

16 16 Lessons learned: (ii) other considerations 1. Initial reluctance to convert from another « free » water source is often overcome when people see the health benefits 2. For electric pumps, quite large sums can be collected, the committees can easily build themselves structures to protect the equipment, buildings for a social or medical purpose in close proximity. Avoid large surplusses – decree is due. One AEP near NDjamena is already considering extending its network to other neighbourhoods 3. Solar versus diesel generated pumps? The former tend to be more limiting …… possible conflict with political objectives 4. Stick to a limited number of pump suppliers, and insist on their establishing a network for spare parts for a minimum period after the end of the programme (say 2 years) (Thirty years ago there were over twenty different pump suppliers) 5. Finding water not usually a problem except in bedrock 6. Economic actors are created

17 17 Decentralisation 1. Ministry of decentralisation overseeing the process across government….popular but……. 2. Decentralisation generally across government has not taken place yet ….. 3. …… need local and regional elections first (to define regional counsellors, mayoral prefecture and district level representatives) 4. Elections at various levels from Feb 2011 (were supposed to start in November 2010) 5. But in anticipation of decentralisation water ministry has started deconcentration with decree in 2008 setting up 8 regional representations (funding required)

18 18 Public Water Service Protocole de transfert de compétence Contrat Contrôle et conseil Appui et conseil CCAG Responsable du service de l'eau (CTD/AUE) Transfert d'info Délégation de gestion Contrôle, appui et conseil Exploitation (opérateur privé) Régulation de l'Etat (DH) Fédération des AUE Contrats de fourniture d'eau BF / BP

19 19 Challenges for Chad 1. Data Management 2. Brain Drain 3. Sanitation 4. Long term success; estimates of rates of breakdown from previous campaigns vary significantly 5. Water quality; the determination of… decrees are in preparation and laboratory facilities are improving, Chadian Water standards exist 6. Aquifer protection policy: For now Chad has experienced very little industrial development but ….………that could soon change 7. People versus livestock 8. Unfettered urban development, Chad is still predominantly rural but could we be headed for another Kosovo? 9. Funding 10. Regionalisation of the SDEA

20 20 Chads 10th EDF will directly benefit more than 1 Million people


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