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Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Babis Petsikos NATIONAL INVENTORY FOR GREENHOUSE GASES FOR THE YEARS 1990-2003 JRC 22-23 September 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Babis Petsikos NATIONAL INVENTORY FOR GREENHOUSE GASES FOR THE YEARS 1990-2003 JRC 22-23 September 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Babis Petsikos NATIONAL INVENTORY FOR GREENHOUSE GASES FOR THE YEARS JRC September 2005

2 Completeness of emission / removal inventory IPCC Source / Sink categories CO 2 CH 4 N2ON2O A. Forest Land 1. Forest Land remaining Forest Land 2. Land converted to Forest Land B. Cropland 1. Cropland remaining Cropland ΝΟ 2. Land converted to CroplandΝΟ 1) ΝΟ C. Grassland 1. Grassland remaining Grassland 2. Land converted to Grassland D. Wetlands 1. Wetlands remaining Wetlands 3) 2. Land converted to WetlandsΝΕ 2) ΝΕ E. Settlements 1. Settlements remaining Settlements 3) 2. Land converted to SettlementsΝΕ F. Other Land 1. Other Land remaining Other Land 3) 2. Land converted to Other Land 3)

3 Key categories in the LULUCF sector IPCC Source / Sink Category Greenhouse GasLevel assessmentTrend assessment Forest Land remaining Forest Land CO 2 Cropland remaining Cropland CO 2 Land converted to Forest Land CO 2 The Living Biomass subcategory was identified as key subcategory in all the three categories

4 IPCC Source / Sink Categories CO 2 CH 4 N2ON2O Method Emission factor Method Emissio n factor Method Emissio n factor A. Forest Land A1. Forest Land remaining Forest Land D, CS, T2, T1 1) CS 2), D 3) T1D D Living Biomass D, T2, CSCS, D T1D D Dead Organic Matter T1, T2CS, D T1D D Soils T1 A2. Land converted to Forest Land T1, T2D T1D D B. Cropland B1. Cropland remaining Cropland T2, T1CS, D Living Biomass T2CS Soils T1D C. Grassland C1. Grassland remaining Grassland T1D D D C2. Land converted to Grassland T1D D D Methodology for the estimation of emissions / removals from LULUCF

5 Changes in 2005 LULUCF InventoryImplication Biomass increment has been estimated for its both components (above and below-ground biomass) instead of the one in merchantable volume only. Increase in CO 2 removals from sector. Carbon uptake due to vegetation regrowth after wildfires has been estimated Increase in CO 2 removals from sector. Carbon transferred into and out of the Dead Wood pool in areas burnt by wildfires has been estimated High annual fluctuations of emissions / removals decreased Emissions of CH 4 and N 2 O are lower Carbon stock changes in living biomass and soils in Croplands remaining Croplands and in Cropland converted to Grassland have been estimated. Increase in CO 2 removals from sector. Carbon losses due to fellings in forest plantations have not been taken into account since this was resulting in overestimation of emissions (biomass increment in plantations was not included in 2004 inventory). Decrease in CO 2 emissions from sector. CO 2 emissions from cultivated organic soils have been estimated Increase in CO 2 emissions from sector. Estimates were done in more disaggregated levels. Enhancement of precision of estimations. Recalculations

6 Recalculations

7 Representation of land areas A mix of approach 1 and 2 as described in the GPG LULUCF was used for representing land areas. the first National Forest Inventory (1st NFI) prepared by the General Secretariat of Forests and Natural Environment (GSFNE, 1992, 1994) of the Ministry of Rural Development and Food the Agricultural Statistics of Greece of the National Statistical Service of Greece (NSSG, annual cencus) the afforestation registry and statistics of the Greek Ministry of Rural Development and Food the Distribution of the Countrys Area by Basic Categories of Land Use of the National Statistical Service of Greece (NSSG, decennial survey)

8 Forest Land includes: (a) areas larger than 0.5 ha or strips more than 30 m wide with tree crown cover (stand density) of more than 10% of the area, or areas with 250 trees of reproductive age per hectare, able to produce wood or other products or services and are not used for any other land-use (b) areas where trees are removed to below 10% of stand density and are not given for other land-use (c) reforested areas and (d) scrublands (areas covered by broadleaved evergreens) A. Forest Land Emissions / removals of GHG (in CO2 eq) from different activities (lines) and net removals from the Forest Land category (bars)

9 A1. Forest Land remaining Forest Land Methodology relies on the carbon flux approach Change in carbon stocks in living biomass C FF LB = C FF G – C FF L C FF G = [ i ( A i G TOTAL i ) CF ] + C FF GR C FF = annual change in carbon stocks from forest land remaining forest land, tonnes C yr -1 C FF LB = annual change in carbon stocks in living biomass (includes above- and belowground biomass) in forest land remaining forest land, tonnes C yr -1 C FF DOM = annual change in carbon stocks in dead organic matter (includes dead wood and litter) in forest land remaining forest land, tonnes C yr -1 C FF = C FF LB + C FF DOM C FF G = annual increase in carbon stocks due to biomass growth, tonnes C yr -1 C FF L = annual decrease in carbon stocks due to biomass loss, tonnes C yr -1 A i = area of forest land remaining forest land, by forest type (i = 1 to 6), ha G TOTAL i = average annual increment rate in total biomass in units of dry matter, by forest type, tonnes d.m. ha -1 yr -1 CF = carbon fraction of dry matter, tonnes C (tonnes d.m.) -1 C FF GR = annual increase in carbon stocks due to regrowth of vegetation on areas affected by wildfires, by forest type, tonnes C yr -1

10 A1. Forest Land remaining Forest Land Forest type A (kha) Iv (m 3 ha -1 yr -1 ) D (t d.m. m -3 ) BEF 1 ( dimensionless ) R ( dimensionless ) Abies sp Picea abies Pinus sp. & other Conifers Fagus sp Quercus sp Other Deciduous G TOTAL = G W (1 + R ) G W = I V D BEF 1 G W = average annual aboveground biomass increment, tonnes d.m. ha -1 yr -1 R = root-to-shoot ratio appropriate to increments, dimensionless I V = average net annual increment in volume suitable for industrial processing, m 3 ha -1 yr -1 D = basic wood density, tonnes d.m. m -3 BEF 1 = biomass expansion factor for conversion of annual net increment to aboveground tree biomass increment, dimensionless

11 A1. Forest Land remaining Forest Land L F+FG = i (H i / UB + FG i ) D i BEF 2 i CF C FF L = L F+FG + L Wildfires L F+FG = annual carbon loss due to commercial fellings and fuelwood gathering, tonnes C yr -1 L Wildfires = annual carbon losses due to wildfires, tonnes C yr -1 H i = annual volume of commercial fellings, by forest species category (i = 1 to 7), underbark roundwood, m 3 yr -1 UB = underbark fraction of tree stem, dimensionless FG i = annual volume of fuelwood gathering, by forest species category, overbark roundwood, m 3 yr -1 BEF 2 i = biomass expansion factor for converting volumes of extracted roundwood to total aboveground biomass (including bark), by forest species category, dimensionless L Wildfires ? GPG LULUCF recommends that when methods applied do not capture removals by regrowth after natural disturbances, it is not necessary to report the CO 2 emissions associated with these events. The assumption suggested that removals from regrowth offset emissions from wildfires is realistic if: the area burnt fully recover the biomass lost, and if biomass burnt every year – or more properly, every decade, because of the high annual variation of the phenomenon - remains constant. This is because emissions of CO 2 in wildfires are not synchronous with the rate of uptake by regrowing vegetation.

12 A1. Forest Land remaining Forest Land The average area of forest land burnt annually in 1980s and 1990s had increased approximately four times since 1960s, that means that enhanced carbon lost lately has not been uptaken yet from regrowing vegetation. This increase in the area burnt resulted in net emissions of greenhouse gases from the phase difference of the two processes

13 L Wildfires = L W oxid + L W trans L W oxid = i A disturbance i B W i (1 – f BL i ) CF L W trans = i A disturbance i B W i f BL i CF B W = (V D BEF 2 + B W understorey ) CF A1. Forest Land remaining Forest Land L W oxid = annual decrease in carbon stocks due to biomass oxidation to the atmosphere, tonnes C yr -1 L W trans = annual decrease in carbon stocks due to biomass transferred to dead organic matter, tonnes C yr -1 A disturbance i = forest areas affected by wildfires, by forest type (i = 21), ha yr -1 B W i = average biomass stock of forest areas, by forest type, tonnes d.m. ha -1 f BL i = fraction of biomass transferred to dead organic matter, by forest type, dimensionless V = average volume of growing stock, overbark, m 3 ha -1 D = basic wood density, tonnes d.m. m -3 BEF 2 = biomass expansion factor for converting volumes of growing stock to total aboveground biomass, dimensionless B W understorey = average biomass stock of understorey vegetation, d.m. ha -1 Where k is the inventory year. C FF GR = (1/35) L Wildfires i i

14 A1. Forest Land remaining Forest Land Change in carbon stocks in dead organic matter C FF DW = C FF DWinto – C FF DWout C FF DW = annual change in carbon stocks in dead wood in areas affected by wildfire, tonnes C yr -1 C FF DW into = annual increase in carbon stocks due to biomass transferred into dead wood in areas affected by wildfire, tonnes C yr -1 C FF DW out = annual decrease in carbon stocks due to dead wood transferred out of pool in areas affected by wildfire, tonnes C yr -1 C FF DWinto = L W trans C FF DWout = (1/10) C FF DWinto i i Non - CO2 greenhouse gas emissions CH 4 Emissions = L W oxid /12 CO Emissions = L W oxid /12 N 2 O Emissions = L W oxid (N/C ratio) /28 NO x Emissions = L W oxid (N/C ratio) /14

15 A1. Forest Land remaining Forest Land GHG emissions and removals (in CO 2 eq) from wildfires (various processes and their net effect) during

16 A2. Land converted to Forest Land C LF = (C LF LB + C LF DOM + C LF Soils ) C LF = annual change in carbon stocks in land converted to forest land, tonnes C yr -1 C LF LB = annual change in carbon stocks in living biomass (includes above- and belowground biomass) in land converted to forest land, tonnes C yr -1 C LF DOM = annual change in carbon stocks in dead organic matter (includes dead wood and litter) in land converted to forest land, tonnes C yr -1 C LF Soils = annual change in carbon stocks in soils in land converted to forest land, tonnes C yr -1 C LF LB = (C LF GROWTH + C LF CONVERSION – C LF LOSS ) C LF GROWTH = annual increase in carbon stocks in living biomass due to biomass growth in land converted to forest land, tonnes C yr -1 C LF CONVERSION = annual change in carbon stocks in living biomass due to actual conversion to forest land, tonnes C yr -1 C LF LOSS = annual decrease in carbon stocks due to biomass loss in land converted to forest land, tonnes C yr -1

17 C LF Soils = C LF Mineral = [ i ( SOC REF – SOC Cropland i ) A aff i ] / T aff A2. Land converted to Forest Land C LF Mineral = annual change in carbon stocks in mineral soils for inventory year, tonnes C yr -1 SOC REF i = reference carbon stock, under native, unmanaged forest on a given soil, tonnes C ha -1 SOC Cropland i = soil organic carbon stock on previous cropland use, by crop type, tonnes C yr -1 A aff i = area of the cropland afforested, by crop type, ha T aff = duration of the transition from SOC Cropland to SOC REF, yr Change in carbon stocks in dead organic matter

18 B1. Cropland remaining Cropland Areas of cropland in Greece since 1963 (fallow land excluded)

19 B1. Cropland remaining Cropland C CC = C CC LB + C CC Soils C CC LB = C CC G – C CC L C CC LB = annual change in carbon stocks in living biomass in cropland remaining cropland and changes crop type, tonnes C yr -1 C CC G = annual increase in carbon stocks due to biomass growth in new plantations, tonnes C yr -1 C CC L = annual decrease in carbon stocks due to biomass loss in eradicated crops, tonnes C yr -1 A planted ij = area where new plantations were established, by crop type (i = 17), ha yr -1 G W i = growth rate in new plantations, by crop type, tonnes d.m. ha -1 yr -1 CF = carbon fraction of dry matter, tonnes C (tonnes d.m.) -1 k = the inventory year B M i = average biomass stock at maturity, by crop type, tonnes d.m. ha -1 λ i = average replacement cycle, by crop type, yr A eradicated i = area of crop eradicated, by crop type (i = 17), ha yr-1 C CC L = i A eradicated i B M i

20 B1. Cropland remaining Cropland C CC Soils = C CC Mineral – C CC Organic Change in carbon stocks in soils C CC Mineral = [ i (SOC 0 A) i - i (SOC (0-T) A) i ] / T SOC = SOC REF F LU F MG F I SOC 0 = soil organic carbon stock in the inventory year, tonnes C yr -1 SOC (0-T) = soil organic carbon stock T years prior to the inventory, tonnes C yr -1 T = inventory time period, yr A = land area of each parcel, ha i represents the set of cropland types or crop type categories, i = 13 SOC REF = the reference soil organic carbon stock, tonnes C yr -1 F LU = stock change factor for land-use or land-use change type F MG = stock change factor for management regime F I = stock change factor for input of organic matter C CC Organic = A Organic EF C CC Organic = CO 2 emissions from cultivated organic soils in cropland remaining cropland, tonnes C yr -1 A Organic = land area of cultivated organic soils, ha EF = emission factor for cultivated organic soils, tonnes C ha -1 yr -1

21 The living biomass pool in grassland includes above- and belowground carbon stocks in woody and herbaceous (grasses and forbs) vegetation. Grasslands in Greece are extensively managed without significant management improvements (e.g. species changes, irrigation, fertilisation) and management practices applied are generally static. Hence, the Tier 1 assumption that is no change in biomass stocks was followed and aboveground grass biomass was only considered for estimating emissions from wildfires. The methods used to estimate emissions from wildfires in grasslands are these described in Forest land section, with the difference that all carbon in the aboveground biomass is assumed to be released to the atmosphere upon disturbance (no transfer to dead organic pool is considered, f BL = 0). However, CO 2 released is assumed to be removed by photosynthesis of vegetation regrowing during the subsequent year and therefore only emissions of non-CO 2 gases are reported. C1. Grassland remaining Grassland Croplands that have been abandoned and converted to grassland were considered in this section. It was assumed that biomass stocks do not change after conversion, and hence carbon stock changes in living biomass were zero. Carbon stock changes in soil were estimated and reported under the category Cropland remaining Cropland. C2. Land converted to Grassland

22 QA/QC plan was applied Uncertainties were quantified according to Tier 1 Net GHG emissions / removals (in kt CO 2 eq) from the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector by category (bars) and total (line) for the period 1990 – 2003


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