Presentation on theme: "Rural-Urban linkages and social cohesion: a position paper"— Presentation transcript:
1Rural-Urban linkages and social cohesion: a position paper Cities Research CentreRural-Urban linkages and social cohesion: a position paperIan Smith and Paul Courtney
2Rural-urban linkages What were we asked to do? Writing the position paperWhat are we trying to achieve today?
3Structure of the day Setting out a conceptual framework Morning: What are the cohesion outcomes of rural-urban linkages?Afternoon: What are the means of promoting rural-urban linkages?What can the Commission do?Key respondents and rounding up
4Remember The paper is the start of a conversation and not the end The conversation will continue after today
5A conceptual framework for Rural-Urban linkages and social cohesion Cities Research CentreA conceptual framework for Rural-Urban linkages and social cohesionPaul Courtney
6Presentation Structure Defining the nature of urban-rural linkagesDefining social cohesionSocial cohesion and social/territorial capitalMeasuring social cohesionA conceptual frameworkOperationalising social cohesionDiscussion points
7Defining rural-urban linkages Lack of clarity and complexity underestimatedTwo-way flows which are functional and structuralMovements of people goods, capital,Social transactions and administrative / service provision / GovernanceFlows of technology, lifestylesInterdependencies and increasingly complex inter-relationsGeographic (territorial) and socio-economic (relational) space
8Defining social cohesion Academic (Sociology and Psychology):Social and economic relevanceSolidarity and division of labour (Durkheim)Communities, groups and memberships.Shared values; reducing disparities; common enterprise; facing shared challengesNature and extent of socio-economic divisions in societyGroup membership: how members can shape the conditions of their environment
9Defining social cohesion Policy perspective – social and economic:Achieving Integration – income differentials; labour market access; housing conditions; social networks; community interaction; whilst:Recognising differences and interdependencesFocus on social networks and community interaction leads debate to Social capital (Networks, norms, trust, reciprocity)
10Social Cohesion & Social Capital Implicit and explicit relationship well documented, and contestedTool to achieve or sub-set of cohesion? Societal or group level?Social Capital – individual and group levels (i.e. networks);Social Cohesion – General condition of society (networks may be exclusionary, thus high social capital but low levels of cohesion)Need to tackle social exclusion and cohesion in tandem
11Social cohesion and territorial capital – economic goals Business networks, customs, solidarity, mutual assistance, agglomeration economies and natural/cultural endowmentsProcess by which social capital mobilised through R-U linkages integral to an area’s territorial capital with economic goals of enhancing efficiency and productivity
12Measuring social cohesion Means-end and Pluralistic approachesCouncil of Europe’s multi-dimensional approach:Equity in enjoyment of rights; dignity & recognition; occupational and family development; participation and commitmentHalf of indicators focussed broadly on social capitalChan et al’s two-by-two framework:Horizontal – cohesion within civil societyVertical – State-citizen cohesion
13A Conceptual framework Shared identitySocial capitalRural-urban linkage/ inter-dependency:movement of people, goods, capital; social transactions; and administrative and service provisionThematic governance arrangements/ delivery vehicleIntervention/ co-ordinated actionsThat reinforces/ provides capacity to support…That shape…That reinforce/ support…Reduce social/ economic inequalitiesShared identity of placeTerritorial capitalReduce spatial inequalitiesSpatial governance arrangements/ delivery vehicle
14Operationalising social cohesion and rural-urban linkages Labour market linkagesRural-urban migrationRural-urban partnership working
15Labour market linkages Division of labour supports dependence, supports social cohesion, thus labour market patterns and commuting importantResearch shows varying patterns of employment decentralisation and journey to work timesCombining residential and employment land use will help support services, stocks of human and social capitalRelated to wider patterns of rural-urban migration
16Rural-urban Migration Patterns of rural-urban flows of human and social capital and implications for civil society differentiated and difficult to predictIn-migration of urban professionals can create tensions but can add to civic vibrancyOut-migration from rural areas can lead to spiral of decline, although return migration can bring urban knowledge, skills and networksAs a form of linkage, impacts of commuting are variable according to sector and distance
17Rural-urban partnership working Limited evidence indicates that a number of opportunities and barriers existBut that good practice can be soughtTo be examined in the context of the vignettes
18Discussion pointsCan we foster social cohesion through rural-urban linkages? Are rural-urban linkages special?Should we attempt to measure social/territorial cohesion derived from rural-urban linkages and if so how?Is there merit in considering social cohesion separately from the territorial agenda?
19Rural-Urban linkages: do they foster cohesion? Cities Research CentreRural-Urban linkages: do they foster cohesion?Ian Smith
20Discussion pointsCan we foster social cohesion through rural-urban linkages? Are rural-urban linkages special?Should we attempt to measure social/territorial cohesion derived from rural-urban linkages and if so how?Is there merit in considering social cohesion separately from the territorial agenda?
21Vignettes – illustration How will we illustrate the issues?Seven vignettes in paper:Inter-municipal partnership in Umeå, Sweden.NGO-driven work with disadvantaged urban youthCombined Universities in CornwallTackling out-migration by young people in the Pays Berry Saint AmandoisCounteracting digital exclusion through broadband in Kuyavia-PomeraniaJoining up public transport in the Prague metropolitan areaRealignment of family protection and child-welfare service in Pécs ‘micro-region’ (Hungary).
22Case vignettes Inter-municipal partnership in Umeå Implementing a Broadband Network in Kuyavia-PomeraniaSocial farming: NetherlandsImayla (NGO-led) social cohesion & youth – SW EnglandPrague Integrated Transit SystemRealignment of family protection and child-welfare services, PécsCombined Universities in CornwallTackling issues for young people: Pays Berry Saint-AmandoisSource of base map: Wikipedia reproduced under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License
23What was being done? Infrastructure building Improving public services Training and employmentTackling social problems
24Creating social cohesion through experience Imayla creates learning environments for disadvantaged young peopleYoung people from disadvantaged urban areas taken to experience rural environments (cohesion within group)Also social farming – laterAre rural-urban linkages special?
25Cohesion through improving public services Improving family support services in Pécs (Hungary)Re-organisation of service at city-region levelImproved access, specialist service and quality controlAre rural-urban linkages special?
26PropositionsProposition 1: cohesion outcomes of rural-urban linkages need to benefit both rural and urban communitiesProposition 2: cohesion can be the unintended or secondary outcome of linkagesProposition 3: territorial and social cohesion are generally linked but they do not have to beProposition 4: linkages are good for dealing with service deficits, migration issues, shared experiences
27Rural-Urban linkages: do they foster cohesion? Cities Research CentreRural-Urban linkages: do they foster cohesion?Some thoughts from our case vignettes
28Rural-Urban linkages: how do you create them? Cities Research CentreRural-Urban linkages: how do you create them?Ian Smith
29Making rural-urban linkages Outline some key ideasWhat have we learnt from EU initiativesVignette illustrationsWhat you think
30Rural-Urban Partnerships Benefits/opportunitiesReduced polarisationAbility to address regional issuesIntelligence of local concerns at strategic levelInclusion of multiple stakeholdersIncreased global competitivenessIncreased capacity to provide fiscal relief for revitalisationChallenges/constraintsPolitical and cultural differencesDifficulties in cross-collaboration and building trustLack of regional policy frameworks and ambiguous structuresOperational complexity of processLack of resourcesCompetition between local authorities
31Partnerships: EU initiative experience Partnerships are important for problem identification and project deliveryPartnership programmes need to be integrated and area-basedTransfer of lessons at EU level importantPartnerships need to be encouraged to be innovative
32Case vignettes Inter-municipal partnership in Umeå Implementing a Broadband Network in Kuyavia-PomeraniaSocial farming: NetherlandsImayla (NGO-led) social cohesion & youth – SW EnglandPrague Integrated Transit SystemRealignment of family protection and child-welfare services, PécsCombined Universities in CornwallTackling issues for young people: Pays Berry Saint-AmandoisSource of base map: Wikipedia reproduced under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License
33Institutional structures in vignettes Voluntary local government associations (with and without incentives)Regional partnershipsNon-governmental partnershipsPartnerships for identifying priorities and partnerships for delivering projects
34Voluntary associations of municipalities Giving small ‘rural’ authorities a voice: the city-region of UmeåUmeå – city region of 143,000 residentsVoluntary association brings together 6 municipalities to pool some resources – this partnership identifies prioritiesProject partnerships take forward projects calling on EU co-financeTransferability? Probably good if have strong local government
35Non-governmental public partnership Providing HE for Cornwall – Combined Universities in Cornwall500,000 population of which 92% ‘rural’ and small townsPartnership of 6 universities (independent public sector) comes together around accessing EU co-financeProvides HE coursesTransferability? Depends on capacity of non-governmental sector
36PropositionsProposition 1: partnership is crucial in the delivery of rural-urban linkages – both in terms of issue identification and project deliveryProposition 2: partnerships will probably mostly depend on local government but is not the only form of partnershipProposition 3: EU co-finance/support has been important in facilitating rural-urban linkageProposition 4: lessons on partnership can be transferred across Europe
37Rural-Urban linkages: how do you create them? Cities Research CentreRural-Urban linkages: how do you create them?Some thoughts from our case vignettes