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Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel EU Israel Cooperation in the Field of Water Regional Water Seminar Amman 21-24 March 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel EU Israel Cooperation in the Field of Water Regional Water Seminar Amman 21-24 March 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel EU Israel Cooperation in the Field of Water Regional Water Seminar Amman March 2011

2 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel Israels Water Sector - Major Challenges Israel entered the 21st century with one of its greatest water overdrafts ever Israel entered the 21st century with one of its greatest water overdrafts ever The cumulative deficit (annual consumption in comparison to average annual replenishment rate of major aquifers) is c. 1.5 billion cubic metres The cumulative deficit (annual consumption in comparison to average annual replenishment rate of major aquifers) is c. 1.5 billion cubic metres 75% of the annual rainfall is concentrated into four winter months. 75% of the annual rainfall is concentrated into four winter months. Rainfall averages up to 950 millimetres per year in some parts of Galilee in the north in contrast to 25 millimetres in the southern tip of the Negev Rainfall averages up to 950 millimetres per year in some parts of Galilee in the north in contrast to 25 millimetres in the southern tip of the Negev

3 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel MAJOR CHALLENGES - continued Periods of drought or near drought interspersed with periods of heavy rainfall Periods of drought or near drought interspersed with periods of heavy rainfall Entering seventh drought year Entering seventh drought year Water scarcity exacerbated by the deteriorating quality of water resources due to demographic, industrial and agricultural pressures Water scarcity exacerbated by the deteriorating quality of water resources due to demographic, industrial and agricultural pressures

4 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel Regulatory Framework & Policies Water policies have evolved from basic water supply management to more integrated policies that consider water demand Water policies have evolved from basic water supply management to more integrated policies that consider water demand Water Law of 1959 (and subsequent regulations) Water Law of 1959 (and subsequent regulations) regulates management of Israel's water resources, their preservation and their allocation for use regulates management of Israel's water resources, their preservation and their allocation for use sets fine levels, establishes personal liability, empowers courts to impose cleanup expenses on polluters or to undertake cleanups, and enables citizens to initiate legal proceedings against offenders sets fine levels, establishes personal liability, empowers courts to impose cleanup expenses on polluters or to undertake cleanups, and enables citizens to initiate legal proceedings against offenders All water resources in Israel are owned by the public - no private water rights or resources All water resources in Israel are owned by the public - no private water rights or resources

5 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel Regulatory Framework & Policies - continued Transitional Master Plan for Water Sector Development ( ) relates to policy, institutional and operational changes which are required to manage the water sector: Transitional Master Plan for Water Sector Development ( ) relates to policy, institutional and operational changes which are required to manage the water sector: Water conservation and water saving projects, reclamation of large amounts of effluents to replace fresh water for agricultural irrigation, seawater and brackish water desalination and remediation of wellsWater conservation and water saving projects, reclamation of large amounts of effluents to replace fresh water for agricultural irrigation, seawater and brackish water desalination and remediation of wells Establishment of Water Authority in 2007 to centralise responsibilities previously dispersed through number of ministriesEstablishment of Water Authority in 2007 to centralise responsibilities previously dispersed through number of ministries WA Currently preparing National Water Plan present WA Currently preparing National Water Plan present

6 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel Institutional Framework Water Authority - responsible for the entire water chain from pumping to sewage treatment to reclamation. Also responsible for setting tariffs and for restructuring water rates to reflect water supply costs, including scarcity Water Authority - responsible for the entire water chain from pumping to sewage treatment to reclamation. Also responsible for setting tariffs and for restructuring water rates to reflect water supply costs, including scarcity Council of the Authority - an interagency body, headed by the Director of the Authority, and composed of senior representatives of the Ministries of Finance, National Infrastructure, Environmental Protection and InteriorCouncil of the Authority - an interagency body, headed by the Director of the Authority, and composed of senior representatives of the Ministries of Finance, National Infrastructure, Environmental Protection and Interior Ministry of Environmental Protection responsible for prevention of water pollution Ministry of Environmental Protection responsible for prevention of water pollution Minister for Health responsible for permits for irrigation using reclaimed effluents and control of potable water quality Minister for Health responsible for permits for irrigation using reclaimed effluents and control of potable water quality

7 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel National Water Carrier Constructed 1950s-1960sConstructed 1950s-1960s Single water network able to convey 450 million cubic metres of water per yearSingle water network able to convey 450 million cubic metres of water per year Since the early 1990s, supplies more than half of Israels drinking waterSince the early 1990s, supplies more than half of Israels drinking water Originally intended to supply irrigation water to the central and southern regions of Israel Originally intended to supply irrigation water to the central and southern regions of Israel Sea of Galilee has become the NWCs primary natural reservoirSea of Galilee has become the NWCs primary natural reservoir Originally intended to combine 3 sources - Sea of Galilee and the mountain coastal aquifers Originally intended to combine 3 sources - Sea of Galilee and the mountain coastal aquifers The National Water Carrier is also used to recharge aquifers and groundwaterThe National Water Carrier is also used to recharge aquifers and groundwater

8 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel OTHER PLAYERS Strong agricultural lobby Strong agricultural lobby Increasingly vocal and professional civil society Increasingly vocal and professional civil society In early 2010, coalition of NGOs produced their vision for the water sector to 2030In early 2010, coalition of NGOs produced their vision for the water sector to 2030 Preceded report of State Commission of Inquiry into the Water Economy Preceded report of State Commission of Inquiry into the Water Economy Questioning of desalination both because of the environmental affects and because makes it easier to downplay conservation Questioning of desalination both because of the environmental affects and because makes it easier to downplay conservation

9 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel THE NGO POSITION AS PRESENTED BY IUED INVERTED TRIANGLES Construction of permeable water preservation facility Restoration of polluted water sources Medium quality purification and reuse of effluents DESALINATION High quality purification & reuse of effluents – cbm Current Government Priorities Desired Government Priorities Conservation and efficient use of water Desalination

10 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel The Political Framework Israel not a recipient of EU bilateral assistance Israel not a recipient of EU bilateral assistance Cooperation in the field of water through: Cooperation in the field of water through: EU-Israel Association Agreement EU-Israel Association Agreement ENP Action Plan ENP Action Plan Participation in ENPI regional programmes Participation in ENPI regional programmes Euro Med activities including Horizon 2020 Euro Med activities including Horizon 2020 EXACT EXACT EU Framework Programmes for Research EU Framework Programmes for Research In the past, also through LIFE Third Countries In the past, also through LIFE Third Countries

11 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel ENP Water Priorities ENP Action Plan No specific section on water - covered by Environment: Prevent pollution of waters, in particular through enhanced water pollutant emission reporting, drawing on the experiences within the EU Water Framework DirectivePrevent pollution of waters, in particular through enhanced water pollutant emission reporting, drawing on the experiences within the EU Water Framework Directive Enhance co-operation between relevant authorities on prevention of air pollution and pollution of water resourcesEnhance co-operation between relevant authorities on prevention of air pollution and pollution of water resources Exchange of information between Israel and the Commission on best practices on water re-useExchange of information between Israel and the Commission on best practices on water re-use

12 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel Association Agreement Water Priorities Association Agreement - launched in 1995, in force since 2000 No specific section on water – covered by Environment Cooperation shall focus, in particular, on:Cooperation shall focus, in particular, on: the quality of Mediterranean water and the control and prevention of marine pollution the quality of Mediterranean water and the control and prevention of marine pollution salinisation salinisation environmental management of sensitive coastal areas environmental management of sensitive coastal areas the impact of agriculture on soil and water quality the impact of agriculture on soil and water quality

13 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel Instruments for Cooperation TAIEX and TWINNING Twinning: 2 million per year available, but so far none on waterTwinning: 2 million per year available, but so far none on water TAIEX: Israel heavy user of TAIEX, but so far none on waterTAIEX: Israel heavy user of TAIEX, but so far none on water EIB – Israel eligible to take loans for environmental infrastructure. Examples: EIB – Israel eligible to take loans for environmental infrastructure. Examples: 200 million for municipal wastewater schemes200 million for municipal wastewater schemes 125 million of the financing for the Hadera desalination plant as well as a further 35 million of financing for its extension.125 million of the financing for the Hadera desalination plant as well as a further 35 million of financing for its extension.

14 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel R&D Cooperation Israel has been associated to the Framework Programmes since 1996 Israel has been associated to the Framework Programmes since 1996 FP7 Israeli participants focusing on water include the major universities, Mekorot - the national water company, and engineering companies FP7 Israeli participants focusing on water include the major universities, Mekorot - the national water company, and engineering companies FP7 water projects cover desalination, agriculture, assessment and monitoring FP7 water projects cover desalination, agriculture, assessment and monitoring

15 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel R&D Cooperation - continued Examples of Water R&D projects with partners from the region: Examples of Water R&D projects with partners from the region: SWITCH Sustainable water management improves tomorrow's cities' health – partners include Palestine and Egypt SWITCH Sustainable water management improves tomorrow's cities' health – partners include Palestine and Egypt Combined solar power and desalination plants: technico- economic potential in Mediterranean Partner countries (ended May 2010) - partners included Morocco, Palestine, Jordan Combined solar power and desalination plants: technico- economic potential in Mediterranean Partner countries (ended May 2010) - partners included Morocco, Palestine, Jordan Nano-structured TiON Photo-Catalytic Membranes for Water Treatment - partners include Jordan Nano-structured TiON Photo-Catalytic Membranes for Water Treatment - partners include Jordan Capture of evaporated water with novel membranes – partners include Tunisia Capture of evaporated water with novel membranes – partners include Tunisia

16 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel LIFE Third Countries Highly appreciated and much missed instrument Highly appreciated and much missed instrument Coordination with national authorities (unlike the other civil society instruments) Coordination with national authorities (unlike the other civil society instruments) Some examples: Some examples: Protecting trans-boundary groundwater sources from pollution: research, training and guidelines for Israeli and Palestinian municipalities (FOEME & House of Water and Environment)Protecting trans-boundary groundwater sources from pollution: research, training and guidelines for Israeli and Palestinian municipalities (FOEME & House of Water and Environment) Restoration and conservation in the re-flooded Hula wetland habitat in northern Israel (Galilee Technology Centre)Restoration and conservation in the re-flooded Hula wetland habitat in northern Israel (Galilee Technology Centre)

17 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel EU Partnership for Peace Programme managed jointly by EUTAO, Amman and Tel Aviv Programme managed jointly by EUTAO, Amman and Tel Aviv Some examples of projects: Some examples of projects: Environment Management and Planning as a tool for Promoting Sustainable Coexistence between Israelis and Palestinians (TAEQ Sakhnin and Centre for Environmental Diplomacy)Environment Management and Planning as a tool for Promoting Sustainable Coexistence between Israelis and Palestinians (TAEQ Sakhnin and Centre for Environmental Diplomacy) Trans-boundary Advocacy of Parliamentarians over shared water issues (Water and Environmental Development Organisation and FOEME)Trans-boundary Advocacy of Parliamentarians over shared water issues (Water and Environmental Development Organisation and FOEME)

18 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel Lessons Learned Some conclusions and recommendations from a 2009 environment workshop Importance of clearly and narrowly defining stakeholders to ensure their active participation Importance of clearly and narrowly defining stakeholders to ensure their active participation Nevertheless important to identify the full range of sectors necessary for projects success Nevertheless important to identify the full range of sectors necessary for projects success The cooperation and commitment of national, regional and local authorities is crucial in many cases for sustainability and credibility The cooperation and commitment of national, regional and local authorities is crucial in many cases for sustainability and credibility Participants asked about the relationship between EU environmental policy as expressed in the European Neighbourhood Policy and the projects actually funded as this is not always obvious Participants asked about the relationship between EU environmental policy as expressed in the European Neighbourhood Policy and the projects actually funded as this is not always obvious Some of the participants raised the issue of finding the correct balance between government responsibility for implementing policy and providing services and the extent to which civil society organizations should take on this role. Some of the participants raised the issue of finding the correct balance between government responsibility for implementing policy and providing services and the extent to which civil society organizations should take on this role. Necessity of coherence among programmes Necessity of coherence among programmes

19 Delegation of the European Union to the State of Israel THANK YOU Livia Stella & Alexandra Meir


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