Partners Countries representedPartner organisationParticipant(s) FinlandPosiva OYTimo Seppälä FranceCommissariat a lEnergie Atomique (CEA) Rose Marie Macias GermanyGesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) Klaus-Jürgen Röhlig NetherlandsNuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG) Benno Haverkate Patrick J OSullivan Slovak Republic and other CEECs VUJE Trnava Inc. (VUJE) assisted DECOM Slovakia Ltd (1) Adela Mrskova (1) Jozef Prítrský SpainEmpresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos SA (ENRESA) Jesús Alonso Díaz-Terán Jose Miguel Valdivieso Ramos SwedenSwedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) Lena Morén SwitzerlandNational Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) Markus Hugi Piet Zuidema UKUnited Kingdom Nirex Limited (Nirex)Samantha King Brendan Breen
Invited Experts Countries representedInvited expert organisationsParticipant(s) BulgariaKozloduy Nuclear Power PlantGeorgi Gyoshev Czech RepublicRadioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA) Miroslav Kucerka HungaryPublic Agency for Radwaste Management (PURAM) Peter Ormai TS Enercon KfsFerenc Takats ItalyNational Agency for New Technologies Energy and Environment (ENEA) Giampiero Santanrossa Daniel Taccarello RomaniaNational Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) Alexandru Rodna SloveniaAgency for Radwaste Management Nadja Zeleznik -Hungarian Academy of ScienceAnna Vari
The Project The wastes The strategy influencing issues The generic strategies which have been adopted or are being considered The important issues for stakeholder acceptance of waste management options
National Waste Categories Considered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) High-level waste from reprocessing (HLW) Long-lived low and intermediate level waste (LL-LILW) that exceeds alpha limitation for short-lived waste but where heat generation is low enough for the waste not to require cooling.
Where Does the Waste Come From? Civil nuclear power programmes – Uranium mining and milling, enrichment plants, NPPs, reprocessing plants - 164 operating reactors, 50 shutdown reactors Research programmes Defence programmes Industrial (including NORM industries), research and medical activities
Reprocessing its status and impact Total SNF that will be discharged ~ 170 000 tonnes of Heavy Metal STATUS: No contracts in seven countries Subject to government review in four In Hungary there is currently no reprocessing End date set in Germany and in the UK there is an assumed end date In the Netherlands they will continue with their existing contract
Current Position on Reprocessing in Terms of SNF Discharged (Tonnes of Heavy Metal) Includes past and projected discharges of SNF (E) Enriched fuels including PWR, BWR, and UK AGR fuel; (M) Non-enriched fuel, principally including UK Magnox fuel, and French Gas-cooled reactor fuel; (C) Non- enriched CANDU reactor spent fuel, which is produced solely in Romania.
Issues Affecting Strategy Selection (1) International requirements - Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and Radioactive Waste Management - Export and import of radioactive waste (Lome and Bamako Conventions, EC Directive 92/3/EURATOM) - Disposal at sea (London Dumping and OSPAR Conventions) - Safeguards (Non-proliferation Treaty)
Reprocessing Main issues: Maintaining a secure supply of nuclear fuel for energy production Safety and environmental considerations The prospect of a future nuclear power programme involving an advanced nuclear fuel cycle Economics Safeguards Technical issues Military requirements
Long-term Management Options Main issues Safety of future generations Preservation of the environment The precautionary principle Intergenerational equity and Sustainability
Spent nuclear fuel discharged from reactors Storage at nuclear power plants at least until heat generation is low enough for transporting Prolonged storage (over 50 yrs) France (100 to 300 yrs is an option), Italy (Option), Netherlands (At least 100 yrs), Spain (Option), UK (Option) Deep geological disposal (>300m depth). National repository (most countries). Multinational repository (option in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania, Slovenia and Switzerland). Shipment to Russia/USA (option for research reactor fuel in Romania, Slovenia and Hungary and for SNF in Slovakia and Hungary) Retrievable disposal required in Finland and the Netherlands. In Switzerland, retrievability is required during the observational phase. In Romania, a pre-closure phase of 100 yrs is required. In Sweden the repository is designed to allow retrieval of deposited canisters. Encapsulation Interim storage (for cooling and other technical reasons) Bulgaria, Czech Republic (at least 50 yrs), Finland (at least 20 yrs), France (unspecified period), Germany (30 - 40 yrs), Hungary (50 yrs is an option) Romania (at least 50 yrs), Slovenia (~30 yrs), Slovakia (50 yrs), Spain (unspecified period), Sweden (30-40yrs), Switzerland (~ 40 yrs), UK (at least 50 yrs) Note: The time periods referred to above are proposed/possible storage times currently considered and are not specified by regulation. Generic Strategy for SNF – Direct Disposal in a Deep Geological Repository
Multi-step Process to Implementation of a Waste Management Facility
Who are the decision makers? - Government - Regional government - Special Courts - Local Municipality - The public
Factors in Achieving Acceptance (1) An acceptance of the strategy Finland decided to pursue deep geological disposal in 1994 Knowledge of the issues Liaison and independent expert groups Ownership of the solution A recognition of the problem and their part in the solution
Factors in Achieving Acceptance (2) Net benefit to the community Enhancement/maintenance of the local economy Enhancement of the local infrastructure Direct financial benefits Loss of reputation – house prices, tourism Loss of revenue from consumables
Factors in Achieving Acceptance (3) The structure of the industry Transparency and clarity of roles Trust in the regulatory process Independent expert groups Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for radioactive waste, EKRA (Switzerland) Consistency with strategies abroad
Factors in Achieving Acceptance (4) Avoiding irreversible decisions Stepwise approach Retrievability Funding Polluter pays Restriction on the waste to be managed Finland – capacity restricted to waste from existing reactors
The Implementation Process (1) The basic requirements for the implementation of a waste management strategy: The existence of a legal framework Identifying the stakeholders that shall take part Defining the role of the stakeholders
The Implementation Process (2) The decision making process must be: Clear and phased Have been developed in consultation with all stakeholders Have clear decision points Explains how decisions have been made Provides the opportunity for stakeholders to meaningfully contribute
Conclusions (1) The main source of SNF and radioactive waste is the civil nuclear power plants. In any scheme for the management of SNF and HLW a period of storage is required. P & T is currently not seen as a practical option for the management of wastes.
Conclusions (2) The long-term management of SNF and long-lived wastes requires addressing both scientific and social issues – research on which is continuing in all countries Nearly all countries are pursuing land- based deep geological disposal as the preferred long-term option for SNF, HLW and long-lived wastes
Conclusions (3) The implementation of deep geological disposal has been opposed in many countries. Perceptions of urgency vary and depend on National policies Social Logistical and Economic Issues.
Conclusions (4) There are four important aspects to gaining acceptance for a disposal facility: An open, inclusive and transparent process A stepwise process Well defined roles for process participants Ensuring that there are net benefits to the host community