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Soil contamination in the Netherlands EIONET workshop, Barcelona, May 2003 Aaldrik Tiktak – Environmental Assessment Agency.

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Presentation on theme: "Soil contamination in the Netherlands EIONET workshop, Barcelona, May 2003 Aaldrik Tiktak – Environmental Assessment Agency."— Presentation transcript:

1 Soil contamination in the Netherlands EIONET workshop, Barcelona, May 2003 Aaldrik Tiktak – Environmental Assessment Agency

2 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak2 Outline Point source contamination –Cleary defined sources –Mining, industrial facilities, landfills Diffuse pollution –Mainly from agricultural sources

3 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak3 Contamination by Point-Sources 200,000 sites known to exist, which is more than in any other EU country –High population density –Intensive soil use –Different perspective due to public awereness after Lekkerkerk 1980 Estimated costs for clean-up higher than in any other EU country –NL:35 billion EUR –UK:25 billion EUR –B:6 billion EUR

4 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak4 Clean-up costs of contaminated sites

5 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak5 Original ambition in the Netherlands Clean-up all contaminated sites to minimal residual values Multifunctional land-use All should be done within one generation Expensive!

6 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak6 BEVER reconsideration Clean-up to realistic values related to the current use of the soil, instead of multifunctional use Decentralization of the controlling action to the provincial and municipal level Joint funding of soil clean-up from all parties of interest (75% funded by private parties) Historical seriously contaminated sites to be under control before 2023 New contamination (after 1987) to be restored immediately

7 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak7 Monitoring of point scale contamination In 2004 an inventory of contaminated sites must be ready –Helps to define the total workload –Allows for better planning of the coming actions Progress of the remediation is monitored independently –Annual progress reports –Size, grade of pollution and priority for remediation –Position in an area (dynamic or static developments) –Size and remidiation goals –Destination of soil and costs

8 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak8 Overview of data to be monitored Monitoring Soil Remediation Survey of workload of suspected sites Progress of investigations Progress of remediation Results of remediation Use of management instruments Nr of sites Grade of contamination Expected costs Nr of sites Grade of contamination Priority for remediation Static or dynamic site Nr of sites Surface and volume Completely remediated Partly remediated Nr of sites Remediation goal realized Destination of soil released Annual spendings Average spendings per site Co-funding

9 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak9 Policy adopted: only 52% multifunctional

10 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak10 But government is still largest investor

11 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak11 Conclusions point-scale pollution 560 new cases detected –But only 15% remediated Total number of 8500 sites remediated –50% multifunctional –35% functional –Speed of remediation has not increased Government spent 50% of the total 5 billion EUR –Below target of 75% With current speed, targets will not be met by 2023

12 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak12 Diffuse Pollution Large areas of land involved –Remediation not possible –Prevent at the source Agriculture is the most important actor! Diffuse pollution is usually also NPS pollution Major pollutants –Nutrients (N and P) –Heavy metals (primarily Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb) –Pesticides –Persistent Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

13 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak13 Diffuse pollution in NL Heavy metal contents are usually below the target value. However, accumulation is still going on. Acidification and eutrophication of nature in. Slight improvement. 70% of land area P- saturated. No improvement. Heavy metals in groundwater above target values in SE NL; above intervention value under forest. High heavy metal contents in SE NL and peat areas due to historic sources Values of persistent pesticides like DDT, HCB and Drins above target value. Not admitted anymore. Pesticides in groundwater??? PAHs above target value in SW NL N in groundwater under sandy soils >> 50 mg/L. Decreasing slightly.

14 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak14 National Soil Quality Monitoring Network (LMB) 200 locations Agriculture and nature Once per 5 years Soil and upper groundwater

15 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak15 Sampling soil quality

16 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak16 Sampling groundwater quality

17 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak17 Example 1: Heavy metals in agricultural soils Percentage of samples above target value

18 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak18 Example 2: Nitrate in the groundwater Nitrate in the groundwater (2000) (5-15 m) % of samples with a concentration > 50 mg/L

19 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak19 Example: The eutrophication problem The Netherlands has a serious eutrophication problem Number of livestock per hectare Livestock per hectare

20 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak20 Dutch and European legislation EU Nitrate directive: –Prescribes both the target and the measure –Concentration in the groundwater should be 50 mg/L –Surface water quality should be good –Maximum application of N in manure is 170 kg/ha Dutch Nutrient Law (MW) implemented in 1996: –MINAS: Maximum loss rates instead of maximum application rates –Soil and crop dependent –Implemented at the farm level –Inforced by penalties (levies)

21 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak21 N surplus decreases... N surplus in dairy farms Clay Peat Other sand Dry sand 170 kg/ha

22 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak22 But nitrate in groundwater under sandy soils is still too high... Measured Corrected value Corrected for fluctuations in precipitation and groundwater level Sand Clay Peat Sand Nitrate in the shallow groundwater

23 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak23 Phosphate saturation 75% of Dutch sandy soils are phosphate saturated Current loss rate enforced (20 kg/ha) still leads to accumulation Further reduction to 1 kg/ha foreseen in 2030 Manure surplus increases –Alternative processing –Export –Reduction of lifestock

24 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak24 To be implemented in national policy in 2003 Good chemical and ecological quality –Nutrients –Toxic substances Targets must be met in 2015 Social consequences.... Waterframe directive

25 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak25 Consequences of agri-environmental plans Volume change Dairy farms Pig farms Cows per farm Pigs per farm Production Added value

26 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak26 Additional measures required: Reform of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) gives opportunities –More money for Rural Development Plans –Possibilities to use EU budget for national ambitions –Funding of overall farm management systems (such as organic farming) –Set-aside of agricultural sector; avoid agriculture in sensitive areas.

27 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak27 Common Agricultural Policy Rural development plans Income support related to hectares Support to agricultural prices

28 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak28 Organic agriculture is still a small market Organic agriculture in European countries Area in 2002Consumption in 2002

29 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak29 Conclusions diffuse pollution Diffuse contamination widespread due to agricultural sources Avoid agriculture in specific areas Transition of agriculture necessary to reach targets –Extensification of existing agriculture –Good Farming Practice –New production methods such as organic farming –Multi-functional use of agricultural soils (recreation, green services)

30 Soil contamination in the Netherlands | Aaldrik Tiktak30 Recommendation for working group Consider both diffuse and point source contamination Tackling the diffuse pollution problem is not possible without transition towards sustainable agriculture –Investigate socio-economic consequences –Investigate alternatives (organic farming, green services, …) –Investigate where agriculture is possible at low environmental costs


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