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Terminology Markup Framework and TBX-SKOS Interoperability

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1 Terminology Markup Framework and TBX-SKOS Interoperability
Gerhard Budin University of Vienna Chair, ISO/TC 37/SC 2 3rd Ecoterm Group Meeting FAO, Rome 17/18 May, 2006

2 A Brief History Problems and Solutions
Strong diversity of lexico-terminological resources Data models, data structures + data semantics Diversity of semantic, linguistic/cultural complexity and semantic depth/richness Diversity of user groups and their requirements Sheer quantity of resources Data interchange between organizations (within and across domains) as well as (distributed) data integration – early needs asking for immediate solutions History of data modeling History of interchange standards History of semantic interoperability management

3 Need for multi-level modeling architectures

4 Developing the Terminology Markup Framework in order to cope with this complexity-diversity
Based on empirical studies and practical user-driven requirements analysis Markup/representation/modeling: XML, XMLS, RDF, UML Open standards strategy (ISO TC 37) ISO Data categories – meta-model element + semantics registry (RDF) ISO Terminology Markup Framework (TMF) – meta-model architecture and specifications (UML) ISO – Terminology Markup Language (XML) Instance for language industry: TBX Termbase Exchange Format (XML) Instance for lexicography/publishing: LexML ISO 1951 Lexical Markup Framework (LMF) (UML) ISO 704 and ISO 1087 (foundational level) ISO (workflow and collaborative issues) Alignment with ISO 11179, W3C, OASIS, etc.

5 Introduction to TBX TBX® stands for TermBase eXchange
TBX is a Terminological Markup Framework (TMF) markup language TMF is an ISO standard (16642) TBX is consistent with ISO (MARTIF) TBX is maintained by OSCAR ( The TBX specification is free

6 Who Should Care about TBX?
If you don’t care about terminological consistency in terminology, then you have no reason to care about TBX If you only need a simple bilingual list of terms (source term and target term) with no additional information, then you don’t need TBX; just use a two-column spreadsheet for your list

7 On the other hand… If you do care about terminological consistency and you maintain one or more terminology databases (termbases), then you should be interested in TBX, unless you want your termbase to be locked into the terminology management software you are currently using. Portability of complex terminological data is the key benefit of TBX

8 What does TBX look like? A TBX file is an XML document
A TBX file consists of: A header that describes the file A set of entries, one per concept in the termbase For each concept, a set of terms, grouped by language, that designate the concept A terminological concept entry (termEntry) Can be multilingual Can be monolingual

9 Example of a TBX file <?xml version='1.0'?> [+ ref to DTD/schema] <martif type='TBX' xml:lang='en'> <martifHeader> [global info] </martifHeader> <text> <body> [concept entries] </body> </text> </martif>

10 TBX Header <martifHeader> <fileDesc> <sourceDesc>
<p>from Budin Kobe 2006</p> </sourceDesc> </fileDesc> <encodingDesc> <p type='DCSName'> SYSTEM "TBXDCSv05c.xml" </p> </encodingDesc> </martifHeader>

11 TBX Body <body> <termEntry id='C171'>
[concept: a dollop of cream] </termEntry> <termEntry id='C180'> [concept: frog legs] </body>

12 TBX and Other Standards
(1) TBX and ISO (TMF) (2) TBX and ISO (Data Categories) (3) TBX and SKOS

13 1: TBX and ISO 16642 TBX is a TML (Terminological Markup Language) of TMF (ISO 16642) (see Annex B) TBX maps to the TMF meta-model A TBX file is a TDC (terminological data collection) martifHeader provides GI (global information) termEntry: TE (terminological entry) langSet: LS (language section) tig/ntig: TS (term section) A TMF DCS (Data Category Selection) in TBX is in XCS (eXtensible Constraint Specification) format TBX uses ISO for its XML style

14 Terminological Data Collection (TDC) (Concept) Entry/Entries
TMF Metamodel Terminological Data Collection (TDC) Global Information (GI) Complementary Information (CI) Terminological (Concept) Entry/Entries (TE) Language Section(s) (LS) Term Section(s) (TS) Term Component Section(s) (TCS)

15 TMF and lexical resources
In general, a terminological resource is organized into concept entries, each of which includes one or more terms designating a particular concept In general, a lexical resource is organized into lexical entries, each of which includes one or more senses of a particular lexical item (a word or phrase) A concept entry containing multiple terms can be split into multiple lexical entries, one per term, and multiple lexical entries associated with the same concept can be combined into one concept entry

16 2: TBX and ISO 12620 All data categories in the default TBX DCS are taken from ISO 12620

17 3: TBX and SKOS A typical concept entry will contain a subject field to specify the domain of the concept. However, the subject field is typically some kind of hierarchy that is flattened into a string within TBX SKOS makes it possible to represent the subject field hierarchy as a hierarchy and then create a link within TBX

18 Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS)
“SKOS is an area of work developing specifications and standards to support the use of knowledge organisation systems (KOS) such as thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading lists, taxonomies, other types of controlled vocabulary, and perhaps also terminologies and glossaries, within the framework of the Semantic Web.” - (Accessed on 3/17/06)

19 Sample SKOS <skos:Concept rdf:about="#s71">
<skos:prefLabel>Food</skos:prefLabel> <skos:narrower rdf:resource="#s81"/> <skos:narrower rdf:resource="#s79"/> </skos:Concept> <skos:Concept rdf:about="#s81"> <skos:prefLabel>Recipe Ingredient</skos:prefLabel> <skos:broader rdf:resource="#s71"/> <skos:Concept rdf:about="#s79"> <skos:prefLabel>Restaurant Menu Item</skos:prefLabel>

20 Visual Representation of SKOS

21 GEvTerm Initiative The information previously used dealing with food has been taken from FooNaVar, a project of the GEvTerm Initiative. The GEvTerm Initiative is a terminological database that has committed to being fully TBX and SKOS compliant Another example of TBX in use is...

22 C: Multilingual Thesaurus for Medieval Studies (MLTMS)
“Imagine the ability to search across web-resources using your native modern european language and find appropriate primary and secondary sources in Latin, French, Italian, German, Spanish, English, etc., based upon the meaning rather than the form of the search term. Imagine having a tool that would enable you to search for a concept and be able to construct the forms it has taken historically as well as the ability to link outward for both evidence and argument. Imagine a tool that would enable you to study the slippage of concept which is beyond naming. Imagine having a tool that can deconstruct ontological orders asking for different kinds of readings.” - (Accessed on 3/17/06)

23 Why did MLTSM use TBX? integration of terminological data from multiple sources; querying multiple termbases through a single user interface by passing data through a common intermediate format on a batch or dynamic basis; placing data on an FTP site for download by interested parties; peer review by colleagues of tentative entries - (Accessed on 3/17/06)

24 MLTSM Sample <termEntry id='eid-VocCod-211.01'>
<descrip type='subjectField'>personnel</descrip> <descrip type='definition'>personne qui accomplit un travail copie ou d'écriture</descrip> <langSet xml:lang='fr'> <ntig> <termGrp> <term id='tid-voccod fr1'>copiste</term> <termNote type='termType'>entryTerm</termNote> </termGrp> </ntig> <term id='tid-voccod fr3'>écrivain</term> <termNote type='termType'>synonym</termNote> </langSet> <langSet xml:lang='en'> <term id='tid-voccod en1'>scribe</term> </termEntry>

25 MLTSM Sample (Rendered with XSLT)

26 TBX  HTML The last few slides have provided an example of rendering HTML from a TBX file. Here is a brief diagram of the process. TBX XSLT HTML Processed by Results in

27 D: Other Standards ISO and XCS, which defines a flavor of TBX, both provide a list of data element types XMDR

28 E: Tasks for TBX Encourage translation technology vendors to implement TBX Revise the specification Compare ISO to XCS

29 XMDR Prototype Architecture: Initial Implemented Modules
External Interface RegistryStore Registry Java WritableRegistryStore Subversion Authentication Service (defer) RetrievalIndex MetadataValidator (defer) schema-driven syntax checker Jena, Xerces FullTextIndex LogicBasedIndex Jena, OWI KS Racer,Kowari Lucene MappingEngine (defer) Ontology Editor 11179 OWL Ontology Protege Generalization Composition (tight ownership) Aggregation (loose ownership)

30 OWL, RDF & XML Schema used to specify XMDR as UML used for 11179 Edition 2
Metamodel 11179 Relational Schema Metadata OWL XMDR Ontology & annotations Types & Cardinalities XMDR XML Schema TRang XMDR’s Relax NG Schema Triples: binary labeled relationships RDF Spec XML Schema Language spec XML Objects What things go in own files? Which property direction stored? Sequential ordering of properties

31 XMDR Prototype Example: dual purpose RDF/XML file: DEALL.1.5394.1.xml
<DataElement rdf:about="" xml:base=" <container rdf:resource=" <identifier rdf:parseType="Resource"> <string rdf:datatype="&xsd;string">5394</string> </identifier> <version rdf:datatype="&xsd;string">1</version> <administrationRecord rdf:parseType="Resource"> <registrationStatus rdf:datatype="&xsd;string">Standard</registrationStatus> <administrativeStatus rdf:datatype="&xsd;string">Final</administrativeStatus> <creationDate rdf:datatype="&xsd;date"> </creationDate> </administrationRecord> <designation rdf:parseType="Resource"> <context rdf:resource="CXT-Legacy.xml"/> <sign xml:lang="en">Country Name</sign> </designation> <context rdf:resource="CXT-Long Abbreviation.xml"/> <context rdf:resource="CXT-Medium Abbreviation.xml"/> <context rdf:resource="CXT-Short Abbreviation.xml"/> <sign xml:lang="en">Mail Cntry Nm</sign> <designation rdf:parseType="Resource"> <context rdf:resource="CXT-Registry.xml"/> <context rdf:resource="CXT-Standard.xml"/> <sign xml:lang="en">Mailing Address Country Name</sign> </designation> <definition rdf:parseType="Resource"> <context rdf:resource="CXT-Legacy.xml"/> <context rdf:resource="CXT-Long Abbreviation.xml"/> <context rdf:resource="CXT-Medium Abbreviation.xml"/> <context rdf:resource="CXT-Short Abbreviation.xml"/> <text xml:lang="en">The name of the country where the addressee is located.</text> </definition> <type rdf:resource="RCDIS xml"/> <domain rdf:resource="VDALL xml"/> <meaning rdf:resource="DCDIS xml"/> <example rdf:datatype="&xsd;string">United States</example> </DataElement>

32 XMDR XML schema provides a number of important benefits…
Schema specifies what is required as well as what is legal Divides metadata into files conforming to XML schema Normalizes data (ala’ relational “one fact in one place”) Facilitates XSLT transformations by reducing degrees of freedom to a canonical encoding within the RDF standard Relax NG used to create and check XMDR-it schema RNG validator enforces many OWL ontology constraints TRang automatically translates into XML schema syntax

33 From texts and terminologies to ontologies
Using the Risk scenario Termbase Export XML Domain Models – meta-models -> patterns Text corpus Term extraction – comparative testing ProTerm, MultiTerm Extract, MultiCorpora Aligning with termbase Ontology import -> editor



36 Bornemisza














50 TBX-SKOS interoperability
Differences XML vs. RDF Inherent flexibility + ”open” data modeling for a large variety of resources vs. traditional thesaurus data model as a default for a KOS (diff. scopes) TBX has documented use cases and mapping tools -> language industry standard Different semantics + vocabularies (12620 vs. thesaurus standard) Commonalities Conceptual approach W3C Vocabulary mapping (RDF)

51 Terminological Data Collection (TDC) (Concept) Entry/Entries
TMF Metamodel Terminological Data Collection (TDC) Global Information (GI) Complementary Information (CI) Terminological (Concept) Entry/Entries (TE) Language Section(s) (LS) Term Section(s) (TS) Term Component Section(s) (TCS)

52 Term Entry Level (Level 1)
Terminological Data Collection (TDC) Global Information (GI) Complementary Information (CI) Terminological (Concept) Entry/Entries (TE) Concept- Related Dat-cats Notes Adminis- trative Dat-cats Subject Field Transaction Note Date Definition Responsibility Concept System DatCats SourceID

53 Language Section Level (Level 2)
Terminological Entry Language Section(s) (LS) Language Section(s) (LS) Language Section(s) (LS) (LS * n …) Concept- Related Dat-cats Language- Related Dat-cats Notes Adminis- trative Dat-cats Note Transaction Definition xml:lang Date Concept System Dat-cats Transfer-comment Responsibility Equivalence SourceID

54 Term-Level Information
Language Section(s) (LS) (TS * n …) Term Section(s) (TS) Term Section(s) (TS) Term Section(s) (TS) Term Adminis- trative DatCats Concept- Related Dat-cats Notes Term-related DatCats (TRD) Transaction Definition Note Context Date Transfer- comment Transfer- comment Responsibility SourceID

55 SKOS Vocabulary SKOS Core is a model for expressing the structure and content of concept schemes (thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading lists, taxonomies, terminologies, glossaries and other types of controlled vocabulary). The SKOS Core Vocabulary is an application of the Resource Description Framework (RDF), that can be used to express a concept scheme as an RDF graph. Using RDF allows data to be linked to and/or merged with other RDF data by semantic web applications.

56 SKOS Graphs

57 SKOS Graphs

58 RDF Representation of SKOS Graph
<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=" xmlns:skos=" xmlns:rdfs=" <skos:Collection> <rdfs:label>milk by source animal</rdfs:label> <skos:member rdf:resource=" <skos:member rdf:resource=" <skos:member rdf:resource=" <skos:member rdf:resource=" </skos:Collection> <skos:Concept rdf:about=" <skos:prefLabel>buffalo milk</skos:prefLabel> </skos:Concept> <skos:Concept rdf:about=" <skos:prefLabel>cow milk</skos:prefLabel> </skos:Concept> <skos:Concept rdf:about=" <skos:prefLabel>goat milk</skos:prefLabel> </skos:Concept> <skos:Concept rdf:about=" <skos:prefLabel>sheep milk</skos:prefLabel> </skos:Concept> </rdf:RDF>

59 Mapping TBX/12620 DatCats to SKOS Vocabulary
TBX data categories (data element concepts in the sense of ISO/IEC ) contain instantiations of information that are expressed in SKOS using SKOS core vocabulary. Interoperability (a cross-walk between the two standards) depends on mapping between the two systems

60 Data Collections collection
We do not have this, although collections can be implied in some cases by the use of the coordinateConceptGeneric or possibly subordinateConceptGeneric markers. collectableProperty We do not have this; in SKOS one can assign rules to collections, which makes this useful as an ontology-like property. orderedCollection Not available in our set, although many of our conceptual domains are structured as ordered lists. They are ordered by virtue of proximity, but we don't have a mechanism for enforcing order within the metadata structure.

61 Collections, cont. memberList
An RDF list containing the members of an ordered collection We aren’t sure why this is necessary; why not just use ordered collection? We are assuming the collection by itself embodies an unordered list. member Definition: member of a list If indicated at all, this is embodied in TBX as 1) a simple data category listed as a member of a conceptual domain 2) as a coordinate concept or subordinate concept associated with a broader concept or topTerm

62 Concept & Concept Schemes
Embodied in TMF/TBX as the entire / termEntry /. conceptScheme A concept system; represented via links and notation systems properties Defined links and relations TMF/TBX: no open class of properties or edges that can be freely defined Many pre-defined sets of property relations between individual data element types and between attributes and the members of their conceptual domains.

63 Scheme Identification
inScheme We have pointers to Classification Schemes, but our pointers for thesauri and hierarchical relations do not include a pointer to the name or identifier of a specific scheme. This is a lacuna for us and needs to be added.

64 Subject (Domain) Identification
isPrimarySubjectOf / subject field level 1 / Definition: the primary subject of a resource 12620 allows for 9 levels of granularty and TBX for 3 in defining the granularity of subject references within a scheme isSubjectOf / subject field level 2 /; primarySubject [subject field + a restrictive constraint; 2nd highest level of granularity] subject / subject field level 3 / ; /subject fields 3-9 / subjectIndicator public subject indicator located using a URI Missing in TBX / 12620

65 Labels (Terms, ConceptNames)
Missing: label / term / prefLabel (preferredLabel) / term  termType=preferred term / ; / descriptor / prefSymbol / term  termType=preferred term  termType=symbol / altLabel / term  termType --> admitted term / altSymbol / term  termType=admitted term  termType=symbol / hiddenLabel Generally achieved using a security code reference or an authorization code

66 Hierarchical Relations
hasTopConcept / topTerm / hasTopConcept points to URI which contains the top concept; we could choose to use this methodology. topConcept has been deprecated as a vocabulary item. broader / broader term / (as a pointer to a thesaurus descriptor) / superordinate term generic / (terminological concept system) narrower (hasNarrower) / narrower term / (as a pointer to a thesaurus descriptor) / narrower concept generic / (terminological concept system)

67 General Relations related semanticRelation
/ related term / (thesaurus pointer) / related concept / (terminological concept system) semanticRelation Missing example in the Vocabulary document how a semantic relation differs (if it does) from other conceptual relations?

68 Concept Description definition / definition / example / example /

69 Notes changeNote editorialNote historyNote privateNote publicNote
/ admin type=modification  note / The relation between Note and "change" is determined by the position of the note embedded in an <adminGroup> of type=modification. A note about a modification to a concept, not to an entry.] editorialNote / adminNote / A note concerning the administration of a KOS resource historyNote / termProvenance / privateNote / note / + authorization levels publicNote / note / + authorization levels scopeNote

70 Thank you for your attention
Acknowledgements: Slides 5-28 together with Alan Melby, Sue Ellen Wright Slides Bruce Bargmeyer Slide 35 WordNet Slides diff. sources, 43: ThesShow Legat/Stallbaumer 44: GEMET, 45: Bandholtz, 46/47: Gangemi, 48: Wright, Miles/SKOS, together with Wright/Melby Gerhard Budin

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