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Terminology Markup Framework and TBX-SKOS Interoperability Gerhard Budin University of Vienna Chair, ISO/TC 37/SC 2 3rd Ecoterm Group Meeting FAO, Rome.

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Presentation on theme: "Terminology Markup Framework and TBX-SKOS Interoperability Gerhard Budin University of Vienna Chair, ISO/TC 37/SC 2 3rd Ecoterm Group Meeting FAO, Rome."— Presentation transcript:

1 Terminology Markup Framework and TBX-SKOS Interoperability Gerhard Budin University of Vienna Chair, ISO/TC 37/SC 2 3rd Ecoterm Group Meeting FAO, Rome 17/18 May, 2006

2 A Brief History Problems and Solutions Strong diversity of lexico-terminological resources –Data models, data structures + data semantics –Diversity of semantic, linguistic/cultural complexity and semantic depth/richness Diversity of user groups and their requirements Sheer quantity of resources Data interchange between organizations (within and across domains) as well as (distributed) data integration – early needs asking for immediate solutions History of data modeling History of interchange standards History of semantic interoperability management

3 Need for multi-level modeling architectures

4 Developing the Terminology Markup Framework in order to cope with this complexity-diversity Based on empirical studies and practical user-driven requirements analysis Markup/representation/modeling: XML, XMLS, RDF, UML Open standards strategy (ISO TC 37) –ISO Data categories – meta-model element + semantics registry (RDF) –ISO Terminology Markup Framework (TMF) – meta-model architecture and specifications (UML) –ISO – Terminology Markup Language (XML) Instance for language industry: TBX Termbase Exchange Format (XML) Instance for lexicography/publishing: LexML ISO 1951 –Lexical Markup Framework (LMF) (UML) –ISO 704 and ISO 1087 (foundational level) –ISO (workflow and collaborative issues) –Alignment with ISO 11179, W3C, OASIS, etc.

5 Introduction to TBX TBX® stands for TermBase eXchange TBX is a Terminological Markup Framework (TMF) markup language –TMF is an ISO standard (16642) TBX is consistent with ISO (MARTIF) TBX is maintained by OSCAR ( The TBX specification is free

6 Who Should Care about TBX? If you dont care about terminological consistency in terminology, then you have no reason to care about TBX If you only need a simple bilingual list of terms (source term and target term) with no additional information, then you dont need TBX; just use a two-column spreadsheet for your list

7 On the other hand… If you do care about terminological consistency and you maintain one or more terminology databases (termbases), then you should be interested in TBX, unless you want your termbase to be locked into the terminology management software you are currently using. Portability of complex terminological data is the key benefit of TBX

8 What does TBX look like? A TBX file is an XML document A TBX file consists of: –A header that describes the file –A set of entries, one per concept in the termbase –For each concept, a set of terms, grouped by language, that designate the concept A terminological concept entry (termEntry) –Can be multilingual –Can be monolingual

9 Example of a TBX file [+ ref to DTD/schema] [global info] [concept entries]

10 TBX Header from Budin Kobe 2006 SYSTEM "TBXDCSv05c.xml"

11 TBX Body [concept: a dollop of cream] [concept: frog legs]

12 TBX and Other Standards (1) TBX and ISO (TMF) (2) TBX and ISO (Data Categories) (3) TBX and SKOS

13 1 : TBX and ISO TBX is a TML (Terminological Markup Language) of TMF (ISO 16642) (see Annex B) TBX maps to the TMF meta-model –A TBX file is a TDC (terminological data collection) –martifHeader provides GI (global information) –termEntry: TE (terminological entry) –langSet: LS (language section) –tig/ntig: TS (term section) A TMF DCS (Data Category Selection) in TBX is in XCS (eXtensible Constraint Specification) format TBX uses ISO for its XML style

14 TMF Metamodel Global Information (GI) Complementary Information (CI) Term Section(s) (TS) Term Component Section(s) (TCS) Language Section(s) (LS) Terminological (Concept) Entry/Entries (TE) Terminological Data Collection (TDC)

15 TMF and lexical resources In general, a terminological resource is organized into concept entries, each of which includes one or more terms designating a particular concept In general, a lexical resource is organized into lexical entries, each of which includes one or more senses of a particular lexical item (a word or phrase) A concept entry containing multiple terms can be split into multiple lexical entries, one per term, and multiple lexical entries associated with the same concept can be combined into one concept entry

16 2: TBX and ISO All data categories in the default TBX DCS are taken from ISO 12620

17 3: TBX and SKOS A typical concept entry will contain a subject field to specify the domain of the concept. However, the subject field is typically some kind of hierarchy that is flattened into a string within TBX SKOS makes it possible to represent the subject field hierarchy as a hierarchy and then create a link within TBX

18 Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) SKOS is an area of work developing specifications and standards to support the use of knowledge organisation systems (KOS) such as thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading lists, taxonomies, other types of controlled vocabulary, and perhaps also terminologies and glossaries, within the framework of the Semantic Web. - (Accessed on 3/17/06)

19 Sample SKOS Food Recipe Ingredient Restaurant Menu Item

20 Visual Representation of SKOS Food Recipe Ingredient Restaurant Menu Item AppetizerEntreeSaladSoup Grocery Store Item Homemade Item

21 GEvTerm Initiative The information previously used dealing with food has been taken from FooNaVar, a project of the GEvTerm Initiative. The GEvTerm Initiative is a terminological database that has committed to being fully TBX and SKOS compliant Another example of TBX in use is...

22 C: Multilingual Thesaurus for Medieval Studies (MLTMS) Imagine the ability to search across web-resources using your native modern european language and find appropriate primary and secondary sources in Latin, French, Italian, German, Spanish, English, etc., based upon the meaning rather than the form of the search term. Imagine having a tool that would enable you to search for a concept and be able to construct the forms it has taken historically as well as the ability to link outward for both evidence and argument. Imagine a tool that would enable you to study the slippage of concept which is beyond naming. Imagine having a tool that can deconstruct ontological orders asking for different kinds of readings. - (Accessed on 3/17/06)

23 Why did MLTSM use TBX? integration of terminological data from multiple sources; querying multiple termbases through a single user interface by passing data through a common intermediate format on a batch or dynamic basis; placing data on an FTP site for download by interested parties; peer review by colleagues of tentative entries - (Accessed on 3/17/06)

24 MLTSM Sample personnel personne qui accomplit un travail copie ou d'écriture copiste entryTerm écrivain synonym scribe entryTerm

25 MLTSM Sample (Rendered with XSLT)

26 TBX HTML The last few slides have provided an example of rendering HTML from a TBX file. Here is a brief diagram of the process. TBXXSLTHTML Processed byResults in

27 D: Other Standards ISO and XCS, which defines a flavor of TBX, both provide a list of data element types XMDR

28 E: Tasks for TBX Encourage translation technology vendors to implement TBX Revise the specification Compare ISO to XCS

29 Ontology Editor Protege OWL Ontology XMDR Prototype Architecture: Initial Implemented Modules MetadataValidator (defer) schema-driven syntax checker Authentication Service (defer) MappingEngine (defer) Registry External Interface Generalization Composition (tight ownership) Aggregation (loose ownership) Jena, Xerces Java RetrievalIndex FullTextIndex Lucene LogicBasedIndex Jena, OWI KS Racer,Kowari RegistryStoreWritableRegistryStore Subversion

30 OWL, RDF & XML Schema used to specify XMDR as UML used for Edition 2 UML11179 Metamodel Relational Schema Relational Metadata OWL XMDR Ontology & annotations XMDRs Relax NG Schema XMDR XML Schema RDF Spec TRang XML Schema Language spec XML Objects Types & Cardinalities What things go in own files? Which property direction stored? Sequential ordering of properties Triples: binary labeled relationships

31 XMDR Prototype Example: dual purpose RDF/XML file: DEALL xml Standard Final Country Name Mail Cntry Nm Mailing Address Country Name The name of the country where the addressee is located. United States

32 XMDR XML schema provides a number of important benefits… Schema specifies what is required as well as what is legal Divides metadata into files conforming to XML schema Normalizes data (ala relational one fact in one place) Facilitates XSLT transformations by reducing degrees of freedom to a canonical encoding within the RDF standard Relax NG used to create and check XMDR-it schema RNG validator enforces many OWL ontology constraints TRang automatically translates into XML schema syntax

33 From texts and terminologies to ontologies Using the Risk scenario –Termbase Export XML Domain Models – meta-models -> patterns –Text corpus Term extraction – comparative testing ProTerm, MultiTerm Extract, MultiCorpora Aligning with termbase –Ontology import -> editor



36 Bornemisza














50 TBX-SKOS interoperability Differences –XML vs. RDF –Inherent flexibility + open data modeling for a large variety of resources vs. traditional thesaurus data model as a default for a KOS (diff. scopes) –TBX has documented use cases and mapping tools -> language industry standard –Different semantics + vocabularies (12620 vs. thesaurus standard) Commonalities –Conceptual approach –W3C Vocabulary mapping (RDF)

51 Global Information (GI) Complementary Information (CI) Term Section(s) (TS) TMF Metamodel Term Component Section(s) (TCS) Language Section(s) (LS) Terminological (Concept) Entry/Entries (TE) Terminological Data Collection (TDC)

52 Global Information (GI) Complementary Information (CI) Term Entry Level (Level 1) Terminological (Concept) Entry/Entries (TE) Terminological Data Collection (TDC) Concept- Related Dat-cats Subject Field Note Definition SourceID Responsibility Date Transaction Adminis- trative Dat-cats Notes Concept System DatCats

53 Language Section Level (Level 2) Language Section(s) (LS) Language Section(s) (LS) Language Section(s) (LS) (LS * n …) Concept- Related Dat-cats Note Definition SourceID Responsibility Date Transaction Language- Related Dat-cats Notes Adminis- trative Dat-cats xml:lang Transfer-comment Equivalence Concept System Dat-cats Terminological Entry

54 Term-Level Information Language Section(s) (LS) Term Section(s) (TS) Term Section(s) (TS) (TS * n …) Definition Term-related DatCats (TRD) Term Context Note SourceID Responsibility Date Transaction Notes Concept- Related Dat-cats Adminis- trative DatCats Term Section(s) (TS) Transfer- comment Transfer- comment

55 SKOS Vocabulary SKOS Core is a model for expressing the structure and content of concept schemes (thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading lists, taxonomies, terminologies, glossaries and other types of controlled vocabulary). The SKOS Core Vocabulary is an application of the Resource Description Framework (RDF), that can be used to express a concept scheme as an RDF graph. Using RDF allows data to be linked to and/or merged with other RDF data by semantic web applications. Resource Description Framework (RDF)

56 SKOS Graphs


58 RDF Representation of SKOS Graph milk by source animal buffalo milk cow milk goat milk sheep milk

59 Mapping TBX/12620 DatCats to SKOS Vocabulary TBX data categories (data element concepts in the sense of ISO/IEC ) contain instantiations of information that are expressed in SKOS using SKOS core vocabulary. Interoperability (a cross-walk between the two standards) depends on mapping between the two systems

60 Data Collections collection –We do not have this, although collections can be implied in some cases by the use of the coordinateConceptGeneric or possibly subordinateConceptGeneric markers. collectableProperty –We do not have this; in SKOS one can assign rules to collections, which makes this useful as an ontology-like property. orderedCollection –Not available in our set, although many of our conceptual domains are structured as ordered lists. –They are ordered by virtue of proximity, but we don't have a mechanism for enforcing order within the metadata structure.

61 Collections, cont. memberList –An RDF list containing the members of an ordered collection –We arent sure why this is necessary; why not just use ordered collection? –We are assuming the collection by itself embodies an unordered list. member –Definition: member of a list –If indicated at all, this is embodied in TBX as 1) a simple data category listed as a member of a conceptual domain 2) as a coordinate concept or subordinate concept associated with a broader concept or topTerm

62 Concept & Concept Schemes concept –Embodied in TMF/TBX as the entire / termEntry /. conceptScheme –A concept system; represented via links and notation systems properties –Defined links and relations TMF/TBX: no open class of properties or edges that can be freely defined Many pre-defined sets of property relations between individual data element types and between attributes and the members of their conceptual domains.

63 Scheme Identification inScheme –We have pointers to Classification Schemes, but our pointers for thesauri and hierarchical relations do not include a pointer to the name or identifier of a specific scheme. –This is a lacuna for us and needs to be added.

64 Subject (Domain) Identification isPrimarySubjectOf –/ subject field level 1 / –Definition: the primary subject of a resource allows for 9 levels of granularty and TBX for 3 in defining the granularity of subject references within a scheme isSubjectOf –/ subject field level 2 /; primarySubject [subject field + a restrictive constraint; 2 nd highest level of granularity] subject –/ subject field level 3 / ; /subject fields 3-9 / subjectIndicator –public subject indicator located using a URI –Missing in TBX / 12620

65 Labels (Terms, ConceptNames) Missing: label –/ term / prefLabel (preferredLabel) –/ term termType=preferred term / ; / descriptor / prefSymbol –/ term termType=preferred term termType=symbol / altLabel –/ term termType --> admitted term / altSymbol –/ term termType=admitted term termType=symbol / hiddenLabel –Generally achieved using a security code reference or an authorization code

66 Hierarchical Relations hasTopConcept –/ topTerm / –hasTopConcept points to URI which contains the top concept; we could choose to use this methodology. –topConcept has been deprecated as a vocabulary item. broader –/ broader term / (as a pointer to a thesaurus descriptor) –/ superordinate term generic / (terminological concept system) narrower (hasNarrower) –/ narrower term / (as a pointer to a thesaurus descriptor) –/ narrower concept generic / (terminological concept system)

67 General Relations related –/ related term / (thesaurus pointer) –/ related concept / (terminological concept system) semanticRelation –Missing example in the Vocabulary document –how a semantic relation differs (if it does) from other conceptual relations?

68 Concept Description definition –/ definition / example –/ example /

69 Notes changeNote –/ admin type=modification note / –The relation between Note and "change" is determined by the position of the note embedded in an of type=modification. –A note about a modification to a concept, not to an entry.] editorialNote –/ adminNote / –A note concerning the administration of a KOS resource historyNote –/ termProvenance / privateNote –/ note / + authorization levels publicNote –/ note / + authorization levels scopeNote

70 Thank you for your attention Acknowledgements: Slides 5-28 together with Alan Melby, Sue Ellen Wright Slides Bruce Bargmeyer Slide 35 WordNet Slides diff. sources, 43: ThesShow Legat/Stallbaumer 44: GEMET, 45: Bandholtz, 46/47: Gangemi, 48: Wright, Miles/SKOS, together with Wright/Melby Gerhard Budin

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