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Concepts and rationale for social protection

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1 Concepts and rationale for social protection
Gabriele Koehler Development economist Visiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS Sussex EC Social Protection Training Course Asia and Pacific Region Bangkok June 2012 Session 2 Day 1

2 Overview: Concepts and rationale for social protection
Social protection as a necessity Economic growth, inequality and the potential role of social protection Social protection as a right Definitions of social protection and classification systems Direct and indirect effects of SP interventions Reflection: the “quiet revolution” and what's emerging

3 I.) Social protection as a necessity
Reasons for social protection: poverty, malnutrition and health and education vulnerabilities; informality in the labour sector, income shocks and risks; income and asset inequities; social exclusion; climate change; conflict and fragile states

4 Overall, since 1980, the global number of people living in extreme poverty has declined from roughly 1.9 billion to 1.3 billion persons. This is positive of course, and again, much of the optimism accompanying the MDGs is based on this trend. Source: UN _DESA 2009

5 Income poverty Absolute number and share of extremely poor people has declined since 1990 globally But: number of extremely poor in Africa and South Asia increased using $1.25 per personday income poverty measure Number of poor and vulnerable people: 2.5 billion persons using $2 per personday income poverty measure However, when looking closely, poverty actually increased in 2 major regions of the world. And: Using a one-dimensional income poverty indicator, $2 per person per day would be a more realistic poverty line. It shows a large absolute number of the world population under the poverty line, who are highly vulernable to economic, political, household and community or national-level level shocks. Also, indicators of income distribution have worsened globally, and even in countries where „dollar a day poverty“ has been decreasing, income disparities between the richest and poorest segments of the population – the Gini index – have widened (see UN-WIDER studies on income distribution).

6 Food inequalities Some examples of disparate outcomes follow.
Hunger and malnutrition are a scourge of the South and especially strong in central Africa, central Latin America, South Asia. Even more marked within these countries when disaggregated to disadvantaged areas or communities. Source of map: UN: The Millennium Development Report 2011, New York 2011, S.12 accessed

7 Employment inequalities
Source: ILO 2011: 23 figure 12 Highest shares of vulnerable employment in South Asia – 78.5%, Subsaharan Africa – 75.8%, and Southeast Asia and Pacific – 61.8% ILO 2011: 22). - The “vulnerable employment” indicator, defined as the sum of own-account workers and unpaid family workers, provides valuable insights into trends in overall employment quality, as a high share of workers in vulnerable employment indicates widespread informal work arrangements, whereby workers typically lack adequate social protection and social dialogue mechanisms. Vulnerable employment is also often characterized by low pay and difficult working conditions in which workers’ fundamental rights may be undermined. (ILO, Global Employment Trends The challenge for a jobs recovery, 2011: 21 f) The vulnerable employment indicator is one of the official Millennium Development Goals (MDG) employment indicators, under “Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger”, together with the employment-to-population ratio, labour productivity growth rate and the share of the working poor in total employment. For a full list of indicators, see: The MDG employment indicators are described in detail in ILO: Guide to the new Millennium Development Goals Employment Indicators (Geneva, 2009); 23). As noted in the Global Employment Trends 2010 report, the vulnerable employment indicator has some limitations: (1)wage and salary employment is not synonymous with decent work, as workers may carry a high economic risk despite the fact that they are in wage employment; (2) the unemployed are not included in the indicator, though they are vulnerable; (3) a worker may be classified in one of the two vulnerable status groups but still not carry a high economic risk, especially in the developed economies.

8 Employment inequalities
The working poor are defined by the ILO as those who work and belong to poor households (Majid, Nomaan “The size of the working poor population in developing countries”. Employment Paper 2001/16. (Geneva, ILO). The first ILO estimates of working poverty were published in 2000 by Nomaan Majid as background work for the 2001 World Employment Report and included the aggregate numbers of working poor in the world and by region for 1986 and In 2002, Stefan Berger and Claire Harasty produced new estimates of working poverty for the years 1990 and 2000 and also estimated the GDP growth needed to reduce by half the share of working poor in total employment between 2000 and (Kapsos, Steven “Employment Strategy Papers. Estimating growth requirements for reducing working poverty: Can the world halve working poverty by 2015?”. Employment Paper 2004/14. (Geneva ILO).) Majority of people in developing countries work in the informal economy Work is “casualised” – unpredictable, unregulated pay, no minimum wage, no social security, and often isolated in the form of home work Examples: subsistence agriculture, agricultural wage labour, off farm employment, vending, transportation, begging, household or hotel/catering services, construction, sex work, child labour, forced labour, even manufacturing

9 Child labour Source ILO IPEC. This table shows: data on the share of children who are working as a share of all children in the age groups 5-11 and It illustrates several things – the magnitude oft the problem; the fact hat child labour starts at a very young age; and also, with respect to data, that there are few data available : few countries and few recent figures. Most child labour goes unrecorded.

10 Disasters and conflict
Climate change, arguably human-made, is intensifying frequency and ferocity of disasters. The impact of disaster on low-income, marginalised populations and households, and has obvious direct and indirect health impacts. Source accessed 21 Jan 2012 Conflicts too are becoming more frequent, with impact on all populations, but affecting socially exluded and lowest-income families the most, with direct impact on their already low health outcomes. Pakistani refugees wait in line for bread at the Yar Hussain camp. Photograph: Paula Bronstein/Getty.

11 Source DESA 2009 11

12 Armed conflicts 12

13 manifest in every society
Social exclusions – manifest in every society GENDER Income/economic class Ethnicity Religion Language Caste/clan Health condition/communicable/visible diseases Ability/disability Geographic location/”distance”/urban vs rural Citizenship and migration status Condition of menstruation Sexual orientation Recurrent emergency situations Conflict situation Age Social exclusion along the vectors of gender, ethnicity, religious affiliation, language group, caste, disability, geographical location, age, and other vectors is found in different manifestations in all societies. It is an important indicator of the necessity of inclusive social protection measures.

14 Social inequities within regions, here an example from Latin America: double to triple higher mortality of infants in indigenous communities than of babies born in the dominant communities, and more than double the ratio of infant mortality in indigenous communities in Panama as compared to Chile.

15 Huge disparities based on different forms of social exclusion are evident even within the capital city of a high-income country – London: male life expectancy is 5 years less in the poor Eastern districts than in the affluent West of the city. Source: London Health Observatory

16 II. Economic growth, inequality and the potential role of social protection
GDP growth fluctuates widely, and incomes and wealth are inequitably distributed. Social protection can address these issues: It can stabilise household incomes – and the recent Great Recession saw stimulus packages in many countries that introduced, or enhanced social protection measures as a countercyclical injection of income to those groups with a higher propensity to consume, It can contribute to income redistribution, especially if SP benefits are sufficiently high to raise incomes above the poverty line and facilitate livelihoods, and even more efficiently do so if it is combined with progressive taxation. In the argument of the recent World Bank strategy, SP can support economic growth by: Providing the security to invest in higher-risk–higher-return activities Promoting greater labor market mobility Stabilizing aggregate demand, notably during recessions Enhancing productive assets and infrastructure (for example, through public works) Reducing inequality in society Making growth-enhancing reforms more politically feasible (page 4). While the DFID “evidence study” argues that there is little direct evidence for a SP-growth nexus.

17 The Great Recession Source: IMF World Economic Outlook 2012: Growth resuming, dangers remain. “Taking one step back, perhaps the highest priority, but also the most difficult to achieve, is to durably increase growth in advanced economies, and especially in Europe. Low growth not only makes for a subdued baseline forecast, but also for a harder fiscal adjustment and higher risks along the way. For the moment, the focus should be on measures that increase demand. Looking forward, however, the focus should also be on measures that increase potential growth. The Holy Grail would be measures that do both. There are probably few of those. More realistically, the search must be for reforms that help in the long term but do not depress demand in the short term. Identifying these reforms, and addressing their potentially adverse short-term effects, should be very high on the policy agenda. “ Olivier Blanchard Economic Counsellor (Introduction to the IMF WEO,

18 Food price increases have been rampant since the Great Recession
Food price increases have been rampant since the Great Recession. They hit those individuals and households especially hard which spend 70 or 80% of their income on food. Source: Isabel Ortiz, Jingqing Chai and Matthew Cummins THE FOOD PRICE SURGE . In: Ortiz and Cummins A Recovery for All Rethinking Socio-Economic Policies for Children and Poor Households . UNICEF. Page 62

19 Income inequality and poverty (OECD)
Source: OECD. (2008) “Growing Unequal? INCOME DISTRIBUTION AND POVERTY IN OECD COUNTRIES,“ OECD publications:

20 Source: http://www. nationmaster
Data on latest available year, from

21 Source: Isabel Ortiz, Jingqing Chai and Matthew Cummins 2012.
AUSTERITY MEASURES AND THE RISKS TO CHILDREN AND POOR HOUSEHOLDS. In: Ortiz and Cummins A Recovery for All Rethinking Socio-Economic Policies for Children and Poor Households . UNICEF. Page 197

22 III. Social protection as a right
There are hard facts of social a nd economic inequities that make SP necessary. There are “Keynesian” arguments for SP in crises and for redistribution. But beyond such “pedestrian” reasons, SP is a right.

23 QUICK QUIZ: What is this text? When was it written?
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to the realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. This text is from … the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. What year was it adopted? The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 10 December 1948, was the result of the experience of the Second World War. With the end of that war, and the creation of the United Nations, the international community vowed never again to allow atrocities like those of that conflict happen again. World leaders decided to complement the UN Charter with a road map to guarantee the rights of every individual everywhere. The document they considered, and which would later become the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was taken up at the first session of the General Assembly in 1946.  The Assembly reviewed this draft Declaration on Fundamental Human Rights and Freedoms and transmitted it to the Economic and Social Council "for reference to the Commission on Human Rights for consideration in its preparation of an international bill of rights." The Commission, at its first session early in 1947, authorized its members to formulate what it termed "a preliminary draft International Bill of Human Rights". Later the work was taken over by a formal drafting committee, consisting of members of the Commission from eight States, selected with due regard for geographical distribution. SOURCE:

24 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

25 Right to Social Protection
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948): Article 22: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966): Article 9: The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to social security, including social insurance. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989): Article 26: States Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with their national law. Source: Köhler

26 Normative frameworks: recent UN trends
Right to food, FAO 2004, Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food, and Committee on World Food Security, May 2012 adopted Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security World Health Assembly return to Alma Ata vision of primary health care for all Global Social Floor Initiative since 2009 –striving for an ILO Recommendation on Social Protection for all (ILC June 2012) MDGs 2010: more emphasis on equity, inclusion, human rights OHCHR Special rapporteurs on human rights – including right to food and right to highest attainable standards of health Rio + 20: … There are also encouraging developments internationally in UN fora in terms of a rights-based agenda – examples include decisions of the governing bodies of the FAO and WHO, and the movement for an international recommendation at the ILO on social protection for all. In May 2012, Voluntary Guidelines seek to improve governance of tenure of land*, fisheries and forests adopted. “They seek to do so for the benefit of all, with an emphasis on vulnerable and marginalized people, with the goals of food security and progressive realization of the right to adequate food, poverty eradication, sustainable livelihoods, social stability, housing security, rural development, environmental protection and sustainable social and economic development. All programmes, policies and technical assistance to improve governance of tenure through the implementation of these Guidelines should be consistent with States’ existing obligations under international law, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments. “ A more rights-based understanding of the MDGs is also emerging, and the role of the OHCHR deserves special mention as the reports of the special rapporteurs/experts are well researched, independent but engaged and critical analyses, and becoming increasingly influential.

27 OHCHR Special Rapporteurs/Independent Experts on human rights
right to education; human rights and extreme poverty; right to food; right to adequate housing; access to safe drinking water and sanitation; against violence against women; physical and mental health; economic policies and debt; TNCs; and other substantive normative areas. What is especially relevant here: the 2011 report of the special rapporteur on HR and extreme poverty made a very strong case for social protection. “The mission of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights is to protect and promote human rights for all. OHCHR aims to ensure implementation of universally recognized human rights norms, strengthen the United Nations human rights programme, and provide the United Nations treaty monitoring bodies and special mechanisms established by the Commission on Human Rights with the highest support.” Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights: Special Rapporteurs and independent experts are a „special procedures“ mechanism of the OHCHR. They are playing an increasingly prominent role and are moving from more legally-oriented themes to economic and social development. The list includes: on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions (1982) on freedom of religion or belief (1986-) on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (1990-) on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance (1993-) on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (1993-) on violence against women, its causes and consequences (1994-) on the independence of judges and lawyers (1994-) on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (1995-) on the adverse effects of the illicit movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes on the enjoyment of human rights (1995-) on the right to education (1998-) on the question of human rights and extreme poverty (1998-) on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living (2000-) on the right to food (2000-) on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health (2002-) of the Secretary-General on the situation of human rights defenders (2000-) on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people (2001-) of the Secretary-General on the human rights of internally displaced persons (2004-) on the human rights of migrants (1999-) on minority issues (2005-) on human rights and international solidarity (2005- on the effects of economic reform policies and foreign debt on the full enjoyment of human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights (2000-) on the promotion and protection of human rights while countering terrorism (2005-) on trafficking in persons, especially in women and children (2004-) on human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises (2005-) international solidarity or minority issues in (2005) water and sanitation (2008) TNCs (2009). In 2010, there were 41 Special Procedures (33 thematic mandates and eight mandates relating to countries or territories) with currently 55 mandate holders. See OHCHR Facts and Figures 2010.

28 Rights – 3 Principles Inclusion, equality - universality
Every human being is equally entitled to social protection Advocates universal not targeted programmes 2. Citizenship and participation Involves negotiating specific entitlements that all citizens can claim such as free education ‘Social contract’ between the states and its citizens 3. Obligation and accountability Ability and willingness of the state to deliver SP under its human rights obligations Requires transparency and accountability – good governance and administrative capacity 1. If not feasible then advocates progressive realisation of economic and social rights Adequate steps need to be taken in the direction of full coverage 2. To achieve these entitlements however, citizens need to be informed of their rights and entitlements, and to develop the capabilities to claim them – [participation] Citzenship – issue could be for those not citizens e.g. migrants Source IDS Centre for Social Protection

29 IV. Definitions of social protection and classification systems

30 Social protection: EU Europea of the European Social Model
Long history: Treaty of Rome (1958): social protection as one of the social objectives universal and equal access to social protection for the big social risks Update: Treaty of Lisabon (2009): combat social exclusion and discrimination promote social justice and protection, gender equality,solidarity between generations, child rights Europe 2020: smart, sustainable and inclusive growth (2010): five 'ambitious targets' – employment, innovation, education,social inclusion and climate/energy social protection is the sovereign responsibility of Member States A variety of social protection systems - no common definition, and hence EC’s Open Method of Coordination Note: There is no doubt that the well developed social protection systems of the EU Member States have been instrumental in reducing social inequities in Europe. Moreover, social protection expenditure has played the role of economic stabiliser and helped to maintain aggregate demand during the first phase of the global economic crisis. The dampening role of automatic stabilizers supports the economy. In particular, they cushion household disposable income and household demand in the event of macroeconomic shocks. A recent study[2] found that, in the case of a proportional income shock, 38% of the shock would be absorbed by automatic stabilizers in the EU, against 32% in the US (with considerable heterogeneity in the results among Member States: from 25% for Estonia to 56% in Denmark). At the same time, however, the effects of the on-going global economic crisis are putting severe strains on European economies. There is less fiscal space – governments have less money to spend in the context of high debts and low growth. In such circumstances social protection is in direct competition for shrinking funds with other government spending priorities, including those which support growth, like infrastructure and education. In this context there is an acute need to ensure that European social protection systems are efficient, well targeted and effective. Source; issues paper for the public consultation on the communication on social Protection in EU Development Cooperation. ttp://

31 Social protection: EU 2012 a human right
social justice and equity, rather than growth target the poor - obligation of authorities towards their citizens investment in present citizenry and future generations reduce the vulnerability and poverty of those excluded or marginalised from economic activity; serve as an important instrument of investment in human capital a multidimensional concept that should be integrated with political, economic and social goals Source: Social protection in EU development cooperation. Report prepared for the EU by Simon Commander, Mark Davies, and Constantine Zaman. Brussels page 5.

32 Social protection: ILO
“…a set of public initiatives that provide income or consumption transfers to the poor, protect the vulnerable against livelihood risks, enhance the social status and promote the rights of the marginalised, with the overall objective of reducing their economic and social vulnerability.” (ILO) Add Source

33 Social Protection Floor(s)
Source: Note from the ILO: The International Labour Conference, at its 100th Session, concluded its discussions on the role of social security with a commitment to establishing national social protection floors aiming at extending at least a minimum level of social security to all, as part of comprehensive social security systems. The extension of social security to all has moved a decisive step forward. At its 100th Session, the International Labour Conference* ha adopted a Resolution on social protection (social security) which reconfirms the role of social security as a human right and a social and economic necessity for countries at all levels of development. This Resolution expresses the commitment of government, employer and workers in the 183 member States of the ILO to step up their efforts to build national social protection floor as part of their national strategies to develop comprehensive social security systems.  The Resolution on social protection endorses a two-dimensional strategy to the extension of social security to all aiming at building comprehensive social security systems, as laid out in the ILO Report submitted to the Conference . The horizontal dimension of the two-dimensional strategy aims at the rapid implementation of national Social Protection Floors, introducing basic social security guarantees that ensure that over the life cycle all in need have effective access to health care and a minimum level of income security. Such policies aim at facilitating effective access to essential goods and services, promote productive economic activity and be implemented in close coordination with other policies enhancing employability, reducing informality and precariousness, creating decent jobs and promoting entrepreneurship. The vertical dimension of the two-dimensional strategy seeks to provide progressively higher levels of protection, guided by the ILO up-to-date social security standards, to as many people a spossible as soon as possible. The two dimensions of the extension of coverage are consistent with moving towards compliance with the requirements of the Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952(No. 102) and are of equal importance and should be pursued simultaneously where possible. The conference stressed that social dialogue is essential in identifying and defining priority policy objectives; the design of the corresponding benefits, entitlements and delivery methods; theallocation of the financial burden between generations and between contributors and tax payers; and the need to find a fair balance between social expectations and financial constraints. The Conference noted the need for a new Recommendation complementing existing ILO international social security standards “that would provide flexible but meaningful guidance to member States in building Social Protection Floors within comprehensive social security systemstailored to national circumstances and level of development.” In viewof the importance of, and the need for national Social Protection Floors, the Governing Body of the ILO has therefore decided that the101th Session of the International Labour Conference in 2012 should discuss this possible Recommendation as a follow-up to the discussion in2011. If adopted, this Recommendation would provide a  guideline to membed States on the implementation of national Social Protection Floors as a means to reducing poverty and promoting sustainable economic andsocial development.The Chair of the Social Protection Floor Advisory Group and Executive Director of UN Women, former President of the Republic of Chile, Ms.Michelle Bachelet, stated in her address to the Committee on the Recurrent Discussion on Social Protection on 13 June 2011 that “thee xtension of social protection, drawing on social protection floors, universalizing social rights and access to basic services, is not an utopia. It is necessary, possible and effective.” The Executive Director of the Social Protection Sector, Mr. Assane Diop, noted that the adoption of the Resolution by the Committee marked a “day of hope... for the five billion people around the world who do not enjoy the full range of social security benefits, whose pensions are too low, whose access to health care is not sufficient, who have no means ofsupport in case of unemployment” and “for the about one billion people that have virtually no social security and face the risks of life and economic upheavals completely unprotected.” 

34 Social protection: ADB
a basic human right and a social necessity to combat poverty and inequality. promotes human well-being, inclusive growth, political stability, and social cohesion can reduce inequality, including that between the sexes. is critical for achieving the MDGs. is a key pillar of inclusive growth is affordable. is an investment to lift and keep people out of poverty. contributes to gender equity Source Sri Wening Handayani, 2010.Enhancing Social Protection in Asia and the Pacific. The Proceedings of the Regional Workshop. Asian Development Bank. Manila. . Pages 4-5 The definition also says: The economic crisis revealed new vulnerabilities and the inability of states, communities, and households to absorb livelihood and other shocks, and to reduce vulnerability to future shocks. Existing social protection frameworks rarely include social exclusion as a source of such vulnerability.

35 Social protection: UNICEF
the set of public and private policies and programmes aimed at preventing, reducing and eliminating economic and social vulnerabilities to poverty and deprivation. Principles of child-sensitive social protection Avoid adverse impacts on children, and reduce or mitigate social and economic risks that directly affect children's lives. Intervene as early as possible where children are at risk Consider the age- and gender-specific risks and vulnerabilities of children throughout the life- cycle. Mitigate the effects of shocks, exclusion and poverty on families Make special provision to reach children who are particularly vulnerable and excluded Consider the mechanisms and intra-household dynamics Include the voices and opinions of children, their caregivers and youth Sources: UNICEF Socio-economic Policies for Child Rights with Equity. Web-based course, Advancing Child-Sensitive Social Protection Joint statement by DFID, HelpAge International, Hope & Homes for Children, Institute of Development Studies, International Labour Organization, Overseas Development Institute, Save the Children UK, UNDP, UNICEF, the World Bank and World Vision.

36 UNICEF: social protection

37 Social protection: DFID
Cash transfers as direct, regular and predictable non-contributory payments that raise and smooth incomes with the objective of reducing poverty and vulnerability. In this view, “The field of cash transfers encompasses a diversity of transfer types (e.g. conditional and unconditional cash transfers); development objectives; design and implementation choices; and financing options. Appropriate design will depend critically on context, including political economy constraints. Transfers are often targeted at the poorest households and at sections of the population that are regarded as vulnerable (e.g. older people, persons with disabilities and children).” SOURCE: DFID Cash Transfers Evidence Paper. Policy Division 2

38 Social protection: World Bank
Social protection and labor systems, policies, and programs help individuals and societies manage risk and volatility and protect them from poverty and destitution—through instruments that improve resilience, equity, and opportunity. Social protection and labor practice will help countries move from fragmented approaches toward more coherent systems for social protection and labor, and help to make these more responsive, productive and inclusive. Source RESILIENCE, EQUITY, AND OPPORTUNITY. The World Bank’s Social Protection and Labor Strategy 2012– Washington April page I; III.

39 Distinctions Mininum income provision Tax-financed
Social assistance Mininum income provision Tax-financed Citizenship- or identity-based Typically addresses informal economy and most vulnerable groups Social security Provision for ill health, accident, old age, maternity, loss of employment Contributory, with supplements from employer/government Membership based Typically applies in the formal economy

40 A typology of social protection
Social Assistance in Developing Countries Database Version 5.0 July 2010Armando Barrientos, Miguel Niño-Zarazúa and Mathilde Maitrot Brooks World Poverty Institute The University of Manchester

41 Another typology of social protection
Source: Köhler, building on Köhler, Cali, Stirbu, Social Protection in South Asia: A Review. Unicef. Davies et al on adaptive social protection; Social Assistance in Developing Countries DatabaseVersion 5.0 July 2010Armando Barrientos, Miguel Niño-Zarazúa and Mathilde Maitrot Brooks World Poverty Institute The University of Manchester

42 SOURCE: DFID 2011. Cash Transfers Evidence Paper. Policy Division 2011
SOURCE: DFID Cash Transfers Evidence Paper. Policy Division

43 A Framework for Social Protection
Promotive Economic opportunities Transformative Social transformation Preventive Insurance mechanisms Provides us a comprehensive framework for SP Source IDS Centre for Social Protection Rachel Sabates-Wheeler/ Stephen Devereux Protective Social assistance

44 V. Direct and indirect effects of social protection interventions

45 SOURCE: DFID 2011. Cash Transfers Evidence Paper. Policy Division 2011
SOURCE: DFID Cash Transfers Evidence Paper. Policy Division

46 SOURCE: DFID 2011. Cash Transfers Evidence Paper. Policy Division 2011
SOURCE: DFID Cash Transfers Evidence Paper. Policy Division 18.

47 Social transfers have impacts on poverty levels and depth and also on variables such as access to food and nutrition, or to education. This figure shows the impact of selected CCTs on school enrolment. Source: DFID, Cash Transfers. Evidence Paper. DFID Policy Division. London p 25.

48 VI. Reflections: the “quiet revolution”
Paradigm shifted: Surge in social protection over past 15 years, acknowledging inequities Rights-based agenda advancing Emerging shifts: Combining employment and decent work with social protection Connecting social services with income guarantees – the social protection floors initiative Reasons include A disillusionment with the earlier development paradigms and development decades that were not overcoming poverty The interest in rights and empowerment and creating household independence The successes in Latin America´s cash transfers More recently role in many countries of social protection measures in the stimulus packages SP emerging in MDGs and post-MDGs discussions as a policy option Quiet revolution is a term acoined by Joseph Hanlon, Armando Barrientos, David Hulme, 2010, Just give money to the poor. The development revolution from the global South. Kumarian Press

49 Reading list: rationale and concepts social protection
Michelle Bachelet, 2011, Social Protection Floor for a Fair and Inclusive Globalization, report of the Advisory Group chaired by Michelle Bachelet convened by the ILO with the collaboration of the WHO. ILO. centre/news/WCMS_166292/lang--en/index.htm Stephen Devereux and Rachel Sabates-Wheeler Transformative Social Protection, IDS Working Paper 232. Brighton: IDS. Stephen Devereux and Rachel Sabates-Wheeler, Debating Social Protection. Editorial Introduction. IDS Bulletin Vol 38 No 3. Pp DFID, 2011, Cash Transfers. Evidence Paper. DFID Policy Division. Londonhttp:// EU, Social protection in EU development cooperation. Report prepared for the EU by Simon Commander, Mark Davies, and Constantine Zaman. Brussels page 5. Margaret Grosh et al. 2008, For protection and promotion: the design and implementation of effective safety nets. World Bank, Washington DC Joseph Hanlon, Armando Barrientos, David Hulme, 2010, Just give money to the poor. The development revolution from the global South. Kumarian Press Sri Wening Handayani, 2010.Enhancing Social Protection in Asia and the Pacific. The Proceedings of the Regional Workshop. Asian Development Bank. Manila.. Naila Kabeer, 2010, Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice. The challenge of intersecting inequalities. IDS and UN MDG Achievement Fund.

50 ILO, 2011, World Social Security Report
ILO, 2011, World Social Security Report. Providing Coverage in times of crisis and beyond ILO, 2011, Social protection floors for social justice and a fair globalization. International Labour Conference, 101st Session, Report IV (1) . ILC.101/IV/1http:// Gabriele Koehler, 2009, Policies towards social inclusion. Global Social Policy: 9. pp , Rachel Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel and Stephen Devereux, 2007, Social Protection for Transformation. IDS Bulletin Vol 38 No 3. Pp UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Rethinking Poverty. Report on the World Social Situation United Nations, New York. UN, Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (1948) UNDP Human Development Report UNRISD, Combating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics. UN General Assembly, Outcome document of the High-level Plenary Meeting of the 65th session of the General Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals. September A/64/L-72. World Bank RESILIENCE, EQUITY, AND OPPORTUNITY. The World Bank’s Social Protection and Labor Strategy 2012–2022. Washington April

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