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Concepts and rationale for social protection Gabriele Koehler Development economist Visiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS Sussex.

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Presentation on theme: "Concepts and rationale for social protection Gabriele Koehler Development economist Visiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS Sussex."— Presentation transcript:

1 Concepts and rationale for social protection Gabriele Koehler Development economist Visiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS Sussex EC Social Protection Training Course Asia and Pacific Region Bangkok 12-15 June 2012 Session 2 Day 1

2 Overview: Concepts and rationale for social protection I.Social protection as a necessity II.Economic growth, inequality and the potential role of social protection III.Social protection as a right IV.Definitions of social protection and classification systems V.Direct and indirect effects of SP interventions VI.Reflection: the quiet revolution and what's emerging

3 I.) Social protection as a necessity


5 Income poverty Absolute number and share of extremely poor people has declined since 1990 globally But: number of extremely poor in Africa and South Asia increased – using $1.25 per personday income poverty measure Number of poor and vulnerable people: – 2.5 billion persons – using $2 per personday income poverty measure

6 Food inequalities

7 Employment inequalities


9 Child labour

10 Disasters and conflict

11 11

12 12 Armed conflicts

13 Income/economic class Ethnicity Religion Language Caste/clan Health condition/communicable/visible diseases Ability/disability Geographic location/distance/urban vs rural Citizenship and migration status Condition of menstruation Sexual orientation Recurrent emergency situations Conflict situation Age Social exclusions – manifest in every society GENDER



16 II. Economic growth, inequality and the potential role of social protection

17 The Great Recession


19 Income inequality and poverty (OECD)



22 III. Social protection as a right

23 QUICK QUIZ: What is this text? When was it written? Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to the realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

24 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

25 Right to Social Protection Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948): Article 22: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966): Article 9: The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to social security, including social insurance. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989): Article 26: States Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with their national law.

26 Normative frameworks: recent UN trends Right to food, FAO 2004, Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food, and Committee on World Food Security, May 2012 adopted Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security World Health Assembly 2008 - return to Alma Ata vision of primary health care for all Global Social Floor Initiative since 2009 –striving for an ILO Recommendation on Social Protection for all (ILC June 2012) MDGs 2010: more emphasis on equity, inclusion, human rights OHCHR Special rapporteurs on human rights – including right to food and right to highest attainable standards of health Rio + 20: …

27 OHCHR Special Rapporteurs/Independent Experts on human rights right to education; human rights and extreme poverty; right to food; right to adequate housing; access to safe drinking water and sanitation; against violence against women; physical and mental health; economic policies and debt; TNCs; and other substantive normative areas.

28 Rights – 3 Principles 1.Inclusion, equality - universality Every human being is equally entitled to social protection Advocates universal not targeted programmes 2. Citizenship and participation Involves negotiating specific entitlements that all citizens can claim such as free education Social contract between the states and its citizens 3. Obligation and accountability Ability and willingness of the state to deliver SP under its human rights obligations Requires transparency and accountability – good governance and administrative capacity

29 IV. Definitions of social protection and classification systems

30 Social protection: EU Europea of the European Social Model Long history: Treaty of Rome (1958): social protection as one of the social objectives universal and equal access to social protection for the big social risks Update: Treaty of Lisabon (2009): combat social exclusion and discrimination promote social justice and protection, gender equality,solidarity between generations, child rights Europe 2020: smart, sustainable and inclusive growth (2010): five 'ambitious targets' – employment, innovation, education,social inclusion and climate/energy

31 Social protection: EU 2012 a human right social justice and equity, rather than growth target the poor - obligation of authorities towards their citizens investment in present citizenry and future generations reduce the vulnerability and poverty of those excluded or marginalised from economic activity; serve as an important instrument of investment in human capital a multidimensional concept that should be integrated with political, economic and social goals

32 Social protection: ILO …a set of public initiatives that – provide income or consumption transfers to the poor, – protect the vulnerable against livelihood risks, – enhance the social status and – promote the rights of the marginalised, with the overall objective of reducing their economic and social vulnerability. (ILO)

33 Social Protection Floor(s)

34 Social protection: ADB a basic human right and a social necessity to combat poverty and inequality. promotes human well-being, inclusive growth, political stability, and social cohesion can reduce inequality, including that between the sexes. is critical for achieving the MDGs. is a key pillar of inclusive growth is affordable. is an investment to lift and keep people out of poverty. contributes to gender equity

35 Social protection: UNICEF the set of public and private policies and programmes aimed at preventing, reducing and eliminating economic and social vulnerabilities to poverty and deprivation. Principles of child-sensitive social protection Avoid adverse impacts on children, and reduce or mitigate social and economic risks that directly affect children's lives. Intervene as early as possible where children are at risk Consider the age- and gender-specific risks and vulnerabilities of children throughout the life- cycle. Mitigate the effects of shocks, exclusion and poverty on families Make special provision to reach children who are particularly vulnerable and excluded Consider the mechanisms and intra-household dynamics Include the voices and opinions of children, their caregivers and youth

36 UNICEF: social protection

37 Social protection: DFID Cash transfers as direct, regular and predictable non-contributory payments that raise and smooth incomes with the objective of reducing poverty and vulnerability.

38 Social protection: World Bank Social protection and labor systems, policies, and programs help individuals and societies manage risk and volatility and protect them from poverty and destitutionthrough instruments that improve resilience, equity, and opportunity. Social protection and labor practice will help countries move from fragmented approaches toward more coherent systems for social protection and labor, and help to make these more responsive, productive and inclusive.

39 Mininum income provision Tax-financed Citizenship- or identity-based Typically addresses informal economy and most vulnerable groups Social assistance Provision for ill health, accident, old age, maternity, loss of employment Contributory, with supplements from employer/government Membership based Typically applies in the formal economy Social security Distinctions

40 A typology of social protection

41 Another typology of social protection


43 Protective Social assistance Preventive Insurance mechanisms Promotive Economic opportunities Transformativ e Social transformation A Framework for Social Protection Rachel Sabates- Wheeler/ Stephen Devereux

44 V. Direct and indirect effects of social protection interventions




48 VI. Reflections: the quiet revolution Paradigm shifted: Surge in social protection over past 15 years, acknowledging inequities Rights-based agenda advancing Emerging shifts: Combining employment and decent work with social protection Connecting social services with income guarantees – the social protection floors initiative

49 Reading list: rationale and concepts social protection Michelle Bachelet, 2011, Social Protection Floor for a Fair and Inclusive Globalization, report of the Advisory Group chaired by Michelle Bachelet convened by the ILO with the collaboration of the WHO. ILO. centre/news/WCMS_166292/lang--en/index.htm Stephen Devereux and Rachel Sabates-Wheeler 2004. Transformative Social Protection, IDS Working Paper 232. Brighton: IDS. Stephen Devereux and Rachel Sabates-Wheeler, 2007. Debating Social Protection. Editorial Introduction. IDS Bulletin Vol 38 No 3. Pp. 1-7. DFID, 2011, Cash Transfers. Evidence Paper. DFID Policy Division. London evidence-paper.pdf evidence-paper.pdf EU, 2012. Social protection in EU development cooperation. Report prepared for the EU by Simon Commander, Mark Davies, and Constantine Zaman. Brussels 2012. page 5. consultations/documents/stk_final_consultation_report_en.pdf Margaret Grosh et al. 2008, For protection and promotion: the design and implementation of effective safety nets. World Bank, Washington DC Joseph Hanlon, Armando Barrientos, David Hulme, 2010, Just give money to the poor. The development revolution from the global South. Kumarian Press Sri Wening Handayani, 2010.Enhancing Social Protection in Asia and the Pacific. The Proceedings of the Regional Workshop. Asian Development Bank. Manila.. Naila Kabeer, 2010, Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice. The challenge of intersecting inequalities. IDS and UN MDG Achievement Fund.

50 ILO, 2011, World Social Security Report. Providing Coverage in times of crisis and beyond. 2010-2011. ILO, 2011, Social protection floors for social justice and a fair globalization. International Labour Conference, 101st Session, 2012. Report IV (1). ILC.101/IV/1 relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_160210.pdf relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_160210.pdf Gabriele Koehler, 2009, Policies towards social inclusion. Global Social Policy: 9. pp. 24-29, Rachel Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel and Stephen Devereux, 2007, Social Protection for Transformation. IDS Bulletin Vol 38 No 3. Pp. 23-27. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2010. Rethinking Poverty. Report on the World Social Situation 2010. United Nations, New York. UN, Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (1948) UNDP 2010. Human Development Report 2010. UNRISD, 2010. Combating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics. UN General Assembly, Outcome document of the High-level Plenary Meeting of the 65 th session of the General Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals. September 2010. A/64/L-72. World Bank 2012. RESILIENCE, EQUITY, AND OPPORTUNITY. The World Banks Social Protection and Labor Strategy 2012–2022. Washington April 2012. 1279223745454/7253917-1291314603217/SPL_Strategy_2012-22_FINAL.pdf

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