Presentation on theme: "ERC Starting Grant – Stage 2 – Interview - Bruxelles, 10 October 2007"— Presentation transcript:
1ERC Starting Grant – Stage 2 – Interview - Bruxelles, 10 October 2007 Uncovering the Secrets of an Earthquake: Multidisciplinary Study of Physico-Chemical Processes During the Seismic Cycle(acronym: USEMS)Giulio Di ToroPrincipal Investigator:Hosting Institution:The USEMSERC Starting Grant – Stage 2 – Interview - Bruxelles, 10 October 2007
2Outline of the USEMS project 1. Motivation 2. Methodology. 3 Outline of the USEMS project 1. Motivation 2. Methodology 3. Main results and applicationsJust make the list
3Outline of the USEMS project 1. Motivation 2. Methodology. 3 Outline of the USEMS project 1. Motivation 2. Methodology 3. Main results and applications
41.MotivationEarthquakes (EQs, red) and landslides (blue) threaten our continent.These are issue receiving considerable attentin in the international community
5EQs and landslides are due to slip on surfaces. HypocenterFault surface10 kmEQs and landslides are due to slip on surfaces.Friction is the key to understand the physics of EQs and landslides.Destructive EQs nucleate at km depth so are investigated remotely via seismology.Indirect approach allows only limited understanding of EQ physics.Just read
6Deformation conditions during EQs are extreme: 1. High slip rates ( m/s)2. Large displacements (up to 20 m)3. High stresses (> 20 MPa)These conditions are so extreme that they belong to a new frontier in material science.NO apparatus in the world can simultaneously reproduce ALL these deformations conditions.Moreover, deformation conditions…
7The USEMS will bridge this technological and scientific gap by: Installing a world class versatile rock friction apparatus to reproduce the seismic cycle in the lab.Looking inside the EQ engine (exhumed faults).With this new and direct multidisciplinary approach, we aim to understand EQ physics but also other friction-related processes of geological and industrial interest.
8Physico-chemical processes similar to those occurring during EQs produce hydrocarbons from rocks. During comminution of marly rocks, CO2 and H2 due to decomposition of calcite and clays react to yield methane:CO2 + 2H2 CH4 + O2(method patented by the Italian National Research Council, ref. P. Plescia, Team Member of the USEMS).This process of industrial interest requires systematic investigation that will become possible using the rock friction apparatus we propose in USEMS.Just read.
9Outline of the USEMS project 1. Motivation 2. Methodology Outline of the USEMS project 1. Motivation 2. Methodology a) Field studies b) Experimental studies and installation of the HVRFA c) Microstructural studies d) Numerical models 3. Main results and applicationsWhich includes field studies, etc… and the installation of an high versitile top class EQ simulator
102. Methodologya) Field studies of exhumed seismic faults will be performed using state of the art techniques (e.g., LIDAR, goCad) to quantify the structure of seismic faults.LIDARgoCad200 mWe will start from field studies … just read…Seismic Fault
11b) Experimental studies and the High Velocity Rock Friction Apparatus (HVRFA) We will investigate the mechanical properties of faults during the EQ cycle by performing experiments on natural rocks.Specimens5 cm2 cmwhen you say this sentence add, by performing high resolution controlled experiments on natural rocks across a wide range of conditions).Seismic fault
12The world class, new-conception HVR-Friction App. AxialloadactuatorAxial columnAxial load cellTorquecell1 mUpper specimenLower specimenRotary columnSecondary motorMain motorHVRFAFrameLateral viewHVRFA will simulate the EQ cycle (and landslides) in the lab, including:1. EQ cycle accelerations and slip rates (1 mm/s - 9 m/s).2. Infinite displacements.3. High Stresses (up to 50 MPa).The HVRFA has an unprecedented range of loading conditions allowing us to study processes never investigated before.Just read
13Exper. will produce mechanical data, test theoretical friction laws and explore new frictional mechanisms.Nielsen, Di Toro, Hirose, Shimamoto, JGR, in pressTheoretical friction lawExperimental dataShear stress (MPa)Normal stress (MPa)3212015105Just read
14Nature Experiment Seismic melts c) Microstructural Studies will determine the deform. mechanisms operating in nature and experiments.50 mm50 mmSEMSEM(through a continuous feedback between nature and laboratory).Seismic meltsNatureExperiment50 mm50 mmDi Toro et al., Science, 2006
15d) Numerical models (calibrated by field, experimental, theoretical and microstructural data) will produce synthetic seismograms to compare to real seismograms and use in EQ hazard studies.Just readDi Toro et al., Nature 2005
16MICROSTRUCTURAL STUDIES FIELD STUDIES FAULT ROCKSFE-SEMFIELD SURVEY& LIDAR500 mgoCad50 mmEXPERIMENTS & THEORYSAMPLE PREP.MODELINGSYNTHETIC SEISMOGRAMSEXP. DATASynoptic view of the USEMS: the USEMS will involve an International interdisciplinary Group of 14 Team members: each of these activities will involve collab with team members.RUPTURE DYNAMICS MODELSTHEORETICAL AND CONSTITUTIVE EQ.HVRFA
17Outline of the USEMS project 1. Motivation 2. Methodology. 3 Outline of the USEMS project 1. Motivation 2. Methodology 3. Main results and applications
183. Anticipated results of USEMS Scientific: understanding of the physics of earthquakes and landslides, and application to EQ and landslide hazard.Technological: the versatile friction apparatus is a technical challenge. Italy and the EU will become key world players in the study of EQs, landslides and high-velocity friction.Industrial: the apparatus allows the investigation of friction-related processes of economic interest such as production of hydrocarbons from rocks.Just read
19Team Members of the USEMS project (18 researchers coordinated by the PI) A) Field work and microstructural analyses. Giorgio Pennacchioni (Padova Univ., I), Andrea Bistacchi (Milano Bicocca Univ., I), Stefan Nielsen (INGV, I), Richard Jones (Durham Univ., UK), Karen Mair (Oslo Univ., N) and Post-Doc 1. B) Development of the HVRFA and rock friction experiments. Terry Tullis (Brown Univ., USA), Toshiko Shimamoto (Hiroshima Univ., J), Takehiro Hirose (Jamstec, J), Antonino Tripoli, Piergiorgio Scarlato, Stefan Nielsen and Gianni Romeo (INGV, I), Post-Doc 2. C) Modeling and theoretical analyses of field and experimental data. Stefan Nielsen (INGV, I) and Karen Mair (PGP, Univ. of Oslo, Norway). D) Other Applications. Industrial: Paolo Plescia (CNR, I), PhD 1. Landslides: Ioannis Vardoulakis and Emmanuil Veveakis (NTUA, Athens, Greece).