Presentation on theme: "ERC Starting Grant – Stage 2 – Interview - Bruxelles, 10 October 2007 Uncovering the Secrets of an Earthquake: Multidisciplinary Study of Physico-Chemical."— Presentation transcript:
ERC Starting Grant – Stage 2 – Interview - Bruxelles, 10 October 2007 Uncovering the Secrets of an Earthquake: Multidisciplinary Study of Physico-Chemical Processes During the Seismic Cycle (acronym: USEMS) Giulio Di Toro Principal Investigator: Hosting Institution:
Outline of the USEMS project 1. Motivation 2. Methodology 3. Main results and applications
1. Motivation Outline of the USEMS project 1. Motivation 2. Methodology 3. Main results and applications
EQslandslidesslip EQs and landslides are due to slip on surfaces. Frictionphysics Friction is the key to understand the physics of EQs and landslides km depth remotely Destructive EQs nucleate at km depth so are investigated remotely via seismology. Indirectlimited understanding Indirect approach allows only limited understanding of EQ physics. Hypocenter Fault surface 10 km
Deformation conditions during EQs are extreme: m/s 1. High slip rates ( m/s) up to 20 m 2. Large displacements (up to 20 m) > 20 MPa 3. High stresses (> 20 MPa) new frontier in material science These conditions are so extreme that they belong to a new frontier in material science. NO ALL NO apparatus in the world can simultaneously reproduce ALL these deformations conditions.
USEMStechnological scientific gap The USEMS will bridge this technological and scientific gap by: 1)versatile rock friction apparatus 1) Installing a world class versatile rock friction apparatus to reproduce the seismic cycle in the lab. 2)exhumed faults 2) Looking inside the EQ engine (exhumed faults). newdirect EQ physics friction-related processes of geological and industrial interest With this new and direct multidisciplinary approach, we aim to understand EQ physics but also other friction-related processes of geological and industrial interest.
Physico-chemical processes similar Physico-chemical processes similar to those occurring during EQs produce hydrocarbons from rocks. methane During comminution of marly rocks, CO 2 and H 2 due to decomposition of calcite and clays react to yield methane: CH 4 CO 2 + 2H 2 CH 4 + O 2 (method patented by the Italian National Research Council, ref. P. Plescia, Team Member of the USEMS). industrial interest USEMS This process of industrial interest requires systematic investigation that will become possible using the rock friction apparatus we propose in USEMS.
2. Methodology a) Field studies b) Experimental studies and installation of the HVRFA c) Microstructural studies d) Numerical models Outline of the USEMS project 1. Motivation 2. Methodology a) Field studies b) Experimental studies and installation of the HVRFA c) Microstructural studies d) Numerical models 3. Main results and applications
Seismic Fault a) Field studies quantify a) Field studies of exhumed seismic faults will be performed using state of the art techniques (e.g., LIDAR, goCad) to quantify the structure of seismic faults. LIDARgoCad 200 m 2. Methodology
b) Experimental studies and the High Velocity Rock Friction Apparatus (HVRFA) We will investigate the mechanical properties of faults during the EQ cycle by performing experiments on natural rocks. 2 cm 5 cm Seismic fault Specimens
Axial load actuator Axial column Axial load cell Torque cell 1 m Upper specimen Lower specimen Rotary column Secondary motor Main motor HVRFA Frame Lateral view The world class, new-conception HVR-Friction App. HVRFA will simulate the EQ cycle (and landslides) in the lab, including: 1 m/s - 9 m/s 1. EQ cycle accelerations and slip rates (1 m/s - 9 m/s). Infinite displacements 2. Infinite displacements. 50 MPa) 3. High Stresses (up to 50 MPa). unprecedented range never investigated before The HVRFA has an unprecedented range of loading conditions allowing us to study processes never investigated before.
mechanical datatheoretical friction lawsnew frictional mechanisms Exper. will produce mechanical data, test theoretical friction laws and explore new frictional mechanisms. Nielsen, Di Toro, Hirose, Shimamoto, JGR, in press Theoretical friction law Experimental data Shear stress (MPa) Normal stress (MPa)
Experiment Nature Seismic melts 50 mm 50 m 50 mm c) Microstructural Studies c) Microstructural Studies will determine the deform. mechanisms operating in nature and experiments. Di Toro et al., Science, 2006 SEMSEM
Di Toro et al., Nature 2005 d) Numerical models d) Numerical models (calibrated by field, experimental, theoretical and microstructural data) will produce synthetic seismograms to compare to real seismograms and use in EQ hazard studies.
FIELD SURVEY & LIDAR goCad FAULT ROCKS SAMPLE PREP. HVRFA THEORETICAL AND CONSTITUTIVE EQ. RUPTURE DYNAMICS MODELS SYNTHETIC SEISMOGRAMS EXP. DATA MODELING FIELD STUDIES MICROSTRUCTURAL STUDIES EXPERIMENTS & THEORY FE-SEM 50 m 500 m
3. Main results and applications Outline of the USEMS project 1. Motivation 2. Methodology 3. Main results and applications
3. Anticipated results 3. Anticipated results of USEMS ScientificScientific: understanding of the physics of earthquakes and landslides, and application to EQ and landslide hazard. TechnologicalTechnological: the versatile friction apparatus is a technical challenge. Italy and the EU will become key world players in the study of EQs, landslides and high-velocity friction. IndustrialIndustrial: the apparatus allows the investigation of friction-related processes of economic interest such as production of hydrocarbons from rocks.
(18 researchers coordinated by the PI) A) Field work and microstructural analyses. Giorgio Pennacchioni (Padova Univ., I), Andrea Bistacchi (Milano Bicocca Univ., I), Stefan Nielsen (INGV, I), Richard Jones (Durham Univ., UK), Karen Mair (Oslo Univ., N) and Post-Doc 1. B) Development of the HVRFA and rock friction experiments. Terry Tullis (Brown Univ., USA), Toshiko Shimamoto (Hiroshima Univ., J), Takehiro Hirose (Jamstec, J), Antonino Tripoli, Piergiorgio Scarlato, Stefan Nielsen and Gianni Romeo (INGV, I), Post-Doc 2. C) Modeling and theoretical analyses of field and experimental data. Stefan Nielsen (INGV, I) and Karen Mair (PGP, Univ. of Oslo, Norway). D) Other Applications. Industrial: Paolo Plescia (CNR, I), PhD 1. Landslides: Ioannis Vardoulakis and Emmanuil Veveakis (NTUA, Athens, Greece). Team Members of the USEMS project