Presentation on theme: "IMPLEMENTATION OF THE THREE Rs The role of education and training L.F.M. van Zutphen Utrecht University The Netherlands."— Presentation transcript:
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE THREE Rs The role of education and training L.F.M. van Zutphen Utrecht University The Netherlands
The successful implementation of the Three Rs heavily depends upon education and training of persons involved in animal experimentation. Balls, M., Goldberg, A., Fentem, J. et al. The Three Rs: The way forward ATLA 23(6), 838-866, 1995
EDUCATION Development of proper attitude TRAINING Acquisition of practical knowledge and skills needed for the design and conduct of animal experiments or for the replacement, reduction, refinement alternatives.
LEGISLATION Art.7.1 Experiments shall be performed solely by competent authorized persons, or under the direct responsibility of such a person Art. 14 Person who carry out experiments or take part in them [ ] shall have appropriate education and training Council Directive 86/609
DEFINING COMPETENCE Council of Europe (1994) Resolution on education and training of persons working with laboratory animals FELASA (1995) Recommendations on education and training of persons working with laboratory animals
Required for: Persons taking care of animals (Cat. A, animal caretaker) Persons carrying out experiments (Cat. B, animal technician) Persons responsible for design of experiments (Cat. C, scientist) Persons specialised in LAS at post-graduate level (Cat. D, animal welfare officer) EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN LAS
COURSE LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCE Biology and husbandry of laboratory animals Genetic standardisation and quality control Gnotobiology and disease control Animal models and experimental design Experimental procedures Anaesthesiology and analgesia Animal alternatives Ethics and animal welfare Emphasis on competence and attitude
REQUIREMENTS FOR CAT. C (SCIENTIST) IN EU-COUNTRIES Required by law Austria Belgium Finland France Germany Greece Italy Netherlands Sweden Not required by law Denmark Ireland Luxembourg Portugal Spain United Kingdom Graduate study (MSc) in a biomedical discipline
REQUIREMENTS FOR CAT.C (SCIENTIST) IN EU-COUNTRIES Required by law Denmark (80 h) Finland (40 h) France (80 h) Netherlands (120 h) Sweden (80 h) United Kingdom (80 h) Not required by law Austria Italy Belgium Luxembourg Germany Portugal Greece Spain Ireland Course on Laboratory Animal Science
NEED FOR HARMONISATION OPORTUNITY REVISION OF COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 86/609 (2002-2003) PRIORITY REQUIREMENTS COMPETENCE OF SCIENTISTS
ESF Position Paper Animal Use in Research Intrinsic value recognised Three Rs strongly endorsed Review protocols animal ethics committees Support for animal welfare research Education and training Ethics policy editorial boards journals
ESF STATEMENT ON EDUCATION Investigators and other personnel involved in the design and performance of animal-based experiments should be adequately educated and trained. ESF Member Organisations should encourage the development and organisation of accredited courses on laboratory animal science, including information on animal alternatives, welfare and ethics.
COURSE LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCE (The Netherlands) Length of course is three weeks Started in 1986 Maximum number of participants is 20 Presently organized at 7 universities Centrally coordinated Utrecht University More than 5000 students have successfully finished the course