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Case Study on Large Ecosystems The National and Natural Parks of Doñana Andalusia, Spain Alejandro Iglesias-Campos (ETC-TE / Junta de Andalucía) Expert.

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Presentation on theme: "Case Study on Large Ecosystems The National and Natural Parks of Doñana Andalusia, Spain Alejandro Iglesias-Campos (ETC-TE / Junta de Andalucía) Expert."— Presentation transcript:

1 Case Study on Large Ecosystems The National and Natural Parks of Doñana Andalusia, Spain Alejandro Iglesias-Campos (ETC-TE / Junta de Andalucía) Expert Meeting on Land Use and Ecosystem Accounting Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

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3 Doñana in Andalusia, the southern region of Europe Andalusia covers 17.3% of the Spanish national territory with 87,268 km² in total, it is the largest single region, with an area bigger than States like Denmark, for example! Population: 7.829.202 (2004) LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

4 Protected areas of Andalusia and the importance of the green corridors! 29% of the territory protected! Habitats and SCIs in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia: LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

5 Mediterranean Guadalquivir Morena coast coast and Intrabetic Betic Geographical areasAtlantic coast depression mountains (until Adra) south-east furrow mountains Oceanic Continental Semi-arid Sub-tropical Sub-desert Continental Mountainous Type of climateMediterraneanMediterranean Mediterranean Mediterranean MediterraneanMediterraneanMediterranean Annual average temperature (ºC) 17-19 17-18 16-17 17-19 17-21 13-15 12-15 Annual average rainfall (mm) 500-700 500-700 600-800 400-900 < 300 300-600 400-1.000 Number of days per year with rain 75-85 75-100 75-100 50-75 < 50 60-80 60-100 Number of months of dry period 4-5 4-5 3-4 4-5 6-8 4-5 3-4 Annual temperature variation (ºC) 10-16 18-20 18-20 13-15 13-16 17-20 16-20 Number of days with frost 0 2-20 20-40 0 0-10 30-60 30-90 Climatic features Annual average temperatures Annual average rainfall Climate: Sunshine everyday? LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

6 Great variety of coastal features Main characteristics Lowline coast Absence of reliefs near the coast Occurence of important rivers& tidal range Powerful littoral drift towards SE. - Estuaries and tidal marshes. - Barrier Islands and spits. - Long beaches. - Extensive sand dunes. - Seabed with fine sediments - Muddy coastal waters. Doñana in the Atlantic Coast of Andalusia LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

7 Doñana facts! Doñana National and Natural Park (1969) Surface area: 132. 587 Has National Park: 50.720 Has (1978) National Parks protection zone: 26.540 Has Natural Park: 55.327 Has. (1989) Importance in terms of Nature - One of the most important wetlands in Europe -Importance in terms of wildlife -World Biosphere Reserve (1980) -Natura 2000 and Special Bird Protection Zone (88) -World Heritage Site (1994) LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

8 Rich and vulnerable biodiversity LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

9 Doñana The Ecosystems LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006 Alluvial ecosystems Wetland ecosystems Aeolian coastal dunes ecosystems Beaches ecosystems

10 Doñana Alluvial ecosystems Located in the north part of the National park including different alluvial areas. –Pinus pinea –Quercus suber –Quercus coccifera –Pistacea lentiscos Riversides. –Fraxinus angustifolia In both ecosystems are usual temporary wetlands LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

11 Doñana Wetland ecosystems -The Old Internal Wetland of Doñana -Traditional wetland of Guadalquivir River -Vegetation addapted to salty marshes: -Arthromenum macrostachyum -Juncus subulatus -Scirpus litorales -Pastures and lucios -Problems: -Presence of walls (human made) to control the water stream through the wetlands (specially in dry period), it produces high concentration of sediments and high salinity index. - In 1980 dead 15.000 gooses and in 1986 more than 30.000 birds due the extreme dry period. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

12 Doñana Wetland ecosystems (II) -The New Internal Wetland of Doñana -Wetland area with more concentration of river water. -Presence of vegetation addapted to medium-salty marshes: -Arthromenum macrostachyum -Juncus subulatus -Scirpus litorales and maritimus -Pastures and lucios -Problems: -The effects of the climate change and the decrease of river water into this wetland area and the natural dry process could affect species like the Scirpus maritimus, normally grow up in areas with high concentration of river waters. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

13 Doñana Wetland ecosystems (III) -The External Tidal Wetland -Low wetland affected daily by the tidal fluctuation. -Presence of vegetation addapted salty marshes: -Sarcocornia perennis -Sarcocornia fruticosa -Spartina densiflora -Cynodon dactylon (Pastures) -Phragmites asustralis -Notes: -This ecosystem can be considered as a coastal wetland following the Andalusian Classification for Ecosystems. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

14 Doñana Wetland ecosystems (III) -Vera y Retuerta -Transitional ecosystem between the wetlands and the aeolian coastal dunes and the old beaches. In contact with clay materials. -In these ecosystems normally there are presence of temporary wetlands -Vegetation: -Juncus subulatus -Cynodon dactylon (Pastures) -Phragmites australis -Notes: -Important area because of its ecological productivity and the contact with clay materials maintaining the humidity during summer, being a refuge for the fauna. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

15 Doñana Aeolian coastal dunes ecosystems -Low coastal dunes -Ecosystem with inputs of freatic waters through a stream network called cañadas. Stable ecosystem. -Vegetation: -Jalimiun halimifolium -Cistus -Erica escoparia -Calluna vulgaris / Ulex australis -Fraxinus angustifolia (in the cañadas) -Populus alba -Pastures and rush -Notes -Temporary wetlands are distributed in the dunes low lands completing this aeolian landscape. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

16 Doñana Aeolian coastal dunes ecosystems -High coastal dunes -Ecosystem with inputs from underground-waters through a stream network called cañadas. Stable ecosystem. -Vegetation: -Jalimiun halimifolium -Cistus -Erica escoparia -Calluna vulgaris / Ulex australis -Fraxinus angustifolia (in the cañadas) -Populus alba -Pastures and rush -Notes -Temporary wetlands are distributed in the dunes low lands completing this aeolian landscape. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

17 Doñana Aeolian coastal dunes ecosystems -Coastal dunes -Stable dune ecosystems. -Vegetation: -Juniperus phoenicea ssp turbinata -Pastures and rush (where the level of underground water is still near the surface) -Pinus Pinea -Juniperus oxycedrus, mocrocarpa -Notes -The effects of the climate change could produce erosion and habitat loss, the vegetation could be limited to arid species. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

18 Doñana Aeolian coastal dunes ecosystems -Active Coastal dunes -Dry and sandy ecosystems. -Vegetation: -Hammophila arearia -Juniperus…Pastures and rush (In the dunes lowlands or depression) -Pinus pinea -Notes -The dune activity or dynamic affect the vegetation development in this kind of ecosystems due the non existence of organic materials, the hydrological stress and the salinity of the sand. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

19 Doñana Beaches ecosystems -Old beaches -Sedimentary Morphological Areas, with a succession of high and low lands that at present time are disconnected from the coastline. -Vegetation: -Pine trees -Rush, pastures -Pistacia Lentiscus -Notes -Depending on the hydrological year, it is possible to find temporary marshes. -Present beaches -Coastal beaches and coastal dunes represent a wide ecosystem but in some areas inside the Doñana Protected areas these ecosystems are damaged from the morphological point of view, due to the human modified coastal dynamics. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

20 Doñana Fauna: El Lince / The Lynx LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006 Doñana lynx population is 20-25 adult lynx and about 13 cubs being born in 2004 from about 6-8 reproducing females. Population fragmented from the other lynx population (300 km away) Causes: –Reduced rabbit numbers (habitat loss, excessive rabbit hunting…) –Reduction of lynx habitat (intensive agriculture or urbanisation) –High non-natural mortality (fast road traffic or hunting)

21 Doñana Fauna: Birds LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

22 Doñana Fauna: Birds LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

23 Doñana Land Use LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

24 Doñana Artificial pressures LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

25 Doñana Population pressures LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

26 Doñana LEAC Cubes Analysis on Inland marshes 411. Inland marshes: -Neighbouring areas of the mouth of the Guadalquivir River -Extension: 31.999 Ha. -No changes between 1990-2000 for 31.860 Ha. -The increase of the extension from 1990 to 2000 is due land principally occupied by agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation (56 Ha) and the rest, 83 Ha from water bodies. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

27 Doñana LEAC Cubes Analysis on Salt marshes 421 Salt Marshes -Located in the mouth of the Guadalquivir River. -These ecosystems have not had any change in extension from 1990 to 2000 -This area is restricted and protected for exploitation of resources and other public uses. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

28 Doñana LEAC Analysis on Salines 422 Salines -Total extension in 1990 was 4.924 Ha. -In 2000, it has increased 54 Ha from inland marshes. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

29 Proyecto Doñana 2005 from the Spanish Ministry of the Environment Recovering the original status of the Doñana marshes Try to identify the main problems for the future taking into account the climate change reports from the Spanish National Government and the Junta de Andalucía. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

30 Doñana National and Natural Parks Sustainable Management Plan by the Junta de Andalucía Manage the National and Natural Park as an only one natural entity Promote the connectivity with the rest of the Natural protected areas of Andalusia, Spain and Portugal. Invest in fauna and flora conservation. Reduce the agriculture activity around the National/Natural Park of Doñana. LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006

31 ¡Muchas gracias por su atención! Thank you very much for your attention More information in: www.juntadeandalucia.es/medioambiente www.donana.es www.ebd.csic.es/eebd.html LEAC Expert Meeting, Copenhagen (DK) 18-19 May 2006


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