Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Benefits and risks of applying compost to European soils

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Benefits and risks of applying compost to European soils"— Presentation transcript:

1 Benefits and risks of applying compost to European soils
Luca Montanarella

2 Status of Soil Organic Carbon in European soils:
Spatial data layer of estimated OC contents in the surface horizon of soils in Europe (30cm), 1km grid size.

3 Soil Organic Carbon dynamics
Hypothetical carbon stock build-up by LULUCF measures Actual terrestrial carbon stock Max. potential carbon stock achievable through LULUCF measures Max. potential carbon stock at climax Terrestrial organic carbon pool Terrestrial carbon stock depletion by historical human induced LULUCF activities time Ca. 60,000 B.C. to A.D Last “green” revolution present future

4 Monitoring SOM on Broadbalk, Rothamsted
%OC FYM FYM since 1885 FYM since 1968 NPK No fertilisers or manures FYM applied at 35 t ha-1 yr-1 Goulding

5 Soil specific carbon sequestration potential
tC Max tC Potential Carbon Sequestration, PCS Carbon Sequestration Rate, CSR Max & Min tC are soil specific Actual tC Potential Carbon loss, PCL (Risk assessment) Carbon Loss Rate, CLR Min tC Years

6 Change in organic carbon content of topsoils in England and Wales
SOC content is depending on humidity, temperature, soil type and land use Example: Change in organic carbon content of topsoils in England and Wales [after Loveland, NSRI, Cranfield University, Silsoe]

7 Carbon losses from all soils across England and Wales 1978-2003
(Bellamy et al., Nature Sep 2005, based on ca samples, 0-15cm) Bellamy et al. estimate annual losses of 13 million tonnes of carbon. This is equivalent to 8% of the UK emissions of carbon dioxide in 1990, and is as much as the entire UK reduction in CO2 emissions achieved between 1990 and 2002 (12.7 million tonnes of carbon per year).

8 Total biowaste and green waste arising in the European Union (1,000 t/y)
Country Municipal solid waste production Biowaste actually collected Greenwaste actually collected Biowaste potentially collectable Greenwaste potentially collectable Austria 4 110 880 (*) 580 850 1 220 1 020 Belgium-Flanders (***) 4 781 330 390 900 Belgium-Wallonia 120 160 Germany 48 715 12 000 14 000 Denmark 2 787 280 490 50 550 France 21 100 74.7 860.6 9 006 5 900 Finland 2 100 100 600 Spain 14 296 (**) 60 / 6 600 Greece 4 200 1 800 Italy 27 000 (****) 1 100 9 000 Ireland 1 848 440 Luxembourg 299 30 60 Netherlands 8 480 1 500 800 2 500 1 000 Portugal 3 600 10 1 300 Sweden 3 998 130 150 970 530 United Kingdom 28 989 39 860 3 200 European Union 54 806 J. Barth, An estimation of European compost production, sources, quantities and use, EU Compost Workshop “Steps towards a European Compost Directive”, Vienna, 2-3 November 1999. Modified for France by I. Feix. Data from Germany are from the report Bundesgütegemeinschaft Kompost: Verzeichnis der Kompostierungs- und Vergärungsanlagen in Deutschland, 2003. (*) Biowaste of industrial origin; (**) Catalonia; (***) Belgium total; (****) Italy: CIC and Italian Environmental Agency data for 2002.

9 Soil organic matter Origin Turnover Complexity Corg CO2
Decomposing fresh OM (Particulate organic matter) Microorganisms Colloidal OM Polysaccharides and biomolecules Humic substances soluble OM -OH CO2 Corg

10

11 Potential measures for cropland
Freibauer et al. 2003

12 Potential soil C sequestration rate
Measure Potential soil C sequestration rate (t CO2.ha-1.y-1) Estimated uncertainty (%) Ref. / notes Limiting factor Soil sequestration potential (106 CO2.y-1) given limitation Animal manure 1.38 > 50% 1 Manure available = t dm.y-1 86.83 4 Crop residues 2.54 Surplus straw = t dm.y-1 90.46 5 Sewage sludge 0.95 1, 2 Sewage sludge available in the mid-time (2005) = t dm.y-1 6.30 6 Composting 1.38 or higher >> 50% 3, 2 Potential production of composted materials present in MSW = 13 to t dm.y-1. Figures include processing of biowaste from agro-industrial by-products, but neither manure, nor crop residues. 11 7 -1. Smith et al. (2000); per hectare values calculated using the average C content of arable top soils (to 30 cm) of 53 t C.ha-1; Vleeshouwers and Verhageb (2002), cf. table 5. -2. The sequestration values are based on a load rate of 1 t ha-1.y-1, which was the lowest safe limit in place (in Sweden) at the time of analysis for this figure (1997). A higher loading rate would give a higher sequestration rate per area. As the limiting factor for the application of compost is the amount of producible compost, a higher loading rate on a certain area would imply that a more limited area could be treated. -3. Assumed to be the same as animal manure figure of Smith et al. (2000). -4. Total figure for EU15 calculated from figures in Smith et al. (2000). Total amount of manure available from Smith et al. (1997). -5. Total figure for EU15 calculated from figures in Smith et al. (2000). Total amount of surplus cereal straw available from Smith et al. (1997).

13 European Climate Change Programme ECCP 2000-2001
Total carbon sequestration potential of measures for increasing soil carbon stocks in agricultural soils for Europe (EU15) and limiting factors.

14 Comparative rates and loads of Cu inputs into French soils
Land surface (%UAA) Mean level of Cu (mg.kg-1 dm) Cu rates (kg.ha-1.y-1) Cu annual loads (t.y-1) over France Urban sewage sludge 1 to 4% 334 0.668 165 MSW compost 0.1% 164.4 0.822 47 Biodegradable wastes Greenwaste compost 0.2% 50.8 0.254 14 Households biowaste compost 0.02% 87.8 0.439 1 Animal effluents 20-25% Ex.: 52 cattle; 730 pigs 0.7 cattle; 2.3 pigs 4 460 (all an. effl.) Agricultural practices P fertilisers 80-90% / 0.004 102 Cu fungicides ~3% (vineyards & arboriculture) 0.8 to 14 752 to Atmospheric depositions 100% 0.006 to 0.015 185 to 462 TWG Organic Matter

15

16

17 Conclusions Soil Organic carbon levels in Europe are low and are constantly declining. There is the urgent need to reverse this negative trend Compost and bio-waste could provide a valuable source of organic matter for European soils. Long-term fate of the exogenous organic material in soils needs to be taken into account, depending on the pedo-climatic local conditions. Potential contamination of bulk organic materials, like compost, sludges and other bio-wastes is a potential threat to human health Careful application of QA/QC and of the precautionary principle is a pre-requisite for increased acceptance of these materials as soil improvers.


Download ppt "Benefits and risks of applying compost to European soils"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google