Presentation on theme: "Drug Consumption on women in some countries in Latin America. Drug Consumption on women in some countries in Latin America. Dr. Luis Caris U. de Chile."— Presentation transcript:
Drug Consumption on women in some countries in Latin America. Drug Consumption on women in some countries in Latin America. Dr. Luis Caris U. de Chile CICAD, Consultant Lisbon 23 September 04
Changes at social level n Globalization process: many thing that happen in developed countries get now very soon to all others countries and it changes the way to see the world. n Technological changes –Communication (cellular phone) –CD, DVD, Cable T.V. –Personal computers and Internet. n Free Market Economy. n Change or less importance of old paradigm: politics, religion, integration.
Changes at social level n The migration of people to live in other countries. n There is also an internal migration from people that are moving from the rural communities to more urban cities. The concept of type of work used to be transmitted through generations or at least for many years, now is more common to change work constantly. The concept of type of work used to be transmitted through generations or at least for many years, now is more common to change work constantly. n Change in societal view: before It was justice and opportunity of all and now is for open society.
Changes at biological level n Change in the concept of youth now is from 15 years old to 25- 30 years old. n Changes in puberty at lower age. n Change in the relationship male-female. Friend with advantage, living together. n Increase the age to get married n The couple live with other person before married. n Increase the number of years of education and collage, specially for women. n Increase the life expectancy in many countries
Changes in the family system The family in many countries is changing from n Extended family or nuclear family with clear role for males and females to : n Nuclear family with small number of children or n Family with only parent usually the mother. n Family not married. n Living alone.
Transformation on the women role in the society n There is a transition from previous concept to new identity. n At the beginning n The women keep all the duties and roles such as: been responsible for care, making the foods, education, health of all members of the family. n The women have others roles such as is also responsible to get money for the family. n The women that are working outside the house and also at home.
Transformation on the women role in the society. n At the end of the transition period the women is having more control on herself. n The women can control the number of children with birth control mechanism. n With the increase of education and wide range of jobs, they could be able to increase the social status and self steam. n They could feel more in control of her life.
Social and personal tensions n It is important for individuals to build as sense of meaning to their lives in a society that the family is getting weaker, and they do not have political or religious values. n There is lonely feeling, lack of communication, less family members. n The community and the neighborhood does not give the emotional support and the feeling that belong to the group.
Family consequences in many countries in Latin America 1.There are less wedding 2.There are more divorce or split marriages 3.There are more people living together without been married. 4.There are more birth out of the married.
Risk Factors for women drug consumption n Family disintegrated. n Couples usually in conflicts n Overwhelming feeling with regards to work at home and also at work place, without having social support. n With the feeling that the work at home it is not appreciated n Identity crisis that is clear when the children get independence.
Risk Factors of drug consumption among women n Unsatisfactory sexual and affective relationship. n Withdraw from social and recreational activities n Inadequate use of the free time. n Lack of opportunities for training and developed. n To do routine task and with low profile. n Feeling emptiness and loneliness
Risk Factors of drug consumption among women n Men pressing toward the women to make her the party companion. n To be scare of been rejected by friends and work mates that use and abuse illicit drugs. n To have close friendship with drug dealers. n Lack of knowledge about the harm of liqueur and others drugs in the organism. n Superficial Models of identification, wiliness of loss weight.
Relation between drug consumption and sexual behavior SAMPLE SIZE Year and Country RELATION: DEPENDENCE- PROSTITUTION ROMERO, L. y Quintanilla, A. 25 prostitutes1981, Mexico.Not always ZAPATA, Coty 9 marijuana abusers Clinical cases.. 1985, Peru.Not always. ROJAS, Milton 65 Coca paste abuser1996, Peru.Predispose behavior GONZALES, Leonel y OSSA, Luis 7 abusers of coca paste1996, Chile. relationship MOLLA, Miguel y RAGUZ, María 50 abuser of drugs and 45 non abusers. 1997, Peru. relationship ROJAS, Milton 627 Abuse of illicit drugs1999, Peru.Highly significant
The prevalence of psychiatrics disorder is double on female in Santiago, Chile
Some psychiatrics disorders among women n Anxiety and depression disorder 18% n Depression 7,8% n Generalize anxiety 4,7% n More prevalence among widow or separated women, or house wife, or unemployed.
Data from Chile, Treatment population, 2004 Plan outpatient Total1600100% Women36123% Men123977% Plan Outpatient Intensive Total533100% Women11622% Men41778%
Data from Chile, Treatment population, 2004 Plan Inpatient Total371100% Women4412% Men32788% All Treatment Total3214100% Women70022% Men251478%
Data from Mexico, Treatment population, 2002 SexoCases% Men1538985.6 Women258914.4 Total17978*100,0
Data from Ecuador, Treatment population, 2004 SexoCases% Men83990.5 Women889.5 Total927*100,0
Gender is a variable that has implication in: Gender is a variable that has implication in: The motivation toward the consumption. The motivation toward the consumption. the characteristics of consumption (How much, when, with whom) the characteristics of consumption (How much, when, with whom) Substances that are used Substances that are used Stigma for consumption Stigma for consumption Possibility of prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. Possibility of prevention, treatment and rehabilitation.
Natalia, 15 years old, uses mainly coca paste. She is with Jorge, they lived on the street, both used drugs for 5 years they start with inhalants. Women girls with consumption of inhalants and or coca paste on street. Health problems (nutritional, obstetrician ) Are at risk of pregnancy, abortion, and or STD. Physical damage as consequences of the consumption School drop out, without formal training Without family support.
Paulina, 22 years old, abuse of alcohol and cocaine, She lives with her parents. Her boyfriend also abuse of cocaine, She works at bar since he graduated from high school, she helps to maintain her family With high school completed. Without labor training Father or mother with consumption of drugs, violence Bad relationship among the family. Heavy consumption during the last month, age of first use of alcohol is at 12 years of age,
Head of the family for years. Double time at work. With difficulties to manage the adolescence of their Children. She knows her emotional problems, but the alcohol consumption does not see as problem. She cannot enter in treatment because she does not have family support for her children. Isabel, 40 years old, she used tranquilizers, and alcohol. House wife, Head of the family, with 3 adolescents..
Marjorie,27 years old, with 5 year of sentence 2 children are with mother in law. She early are in the drug use, and dealer. High school incomplete, without training Husband is on jail She have not see their children for many months Charge for drug traffics Without assuming her drug problem.
Claudia, 16 years old, student, use alcohol also marijuana and cocaine. She has school problems and family problems. Consumption link to free time without perception of the problem. Parents away from the problem. With episode of anorexia and bulimia.
Characteristics ……… They come late to treatment, with long process of consumption. They come late to treatment, with long process of consumption. Social Stigma Social Stigma Alone without social support. Alone without social support. With emotional problems With emotional problems With low self esteem With low self esteem
Characteristics ……… Higher tolerance to violence (I deserve it) Higher tolerance to violence (I deserve it) Self destructive behavior Self destructive behavior When they have children they are not taking care of them When they have children they are not taking care of them Many times they ask for help due to suicide attempt Many times they ask for help due to suicide attempt
They are single of the relationship it is deteriorate They are single of the relationship it is deteriorate They were abused as kid emotional, physical, and or sexual They were abused as kid emotional, physical, and or sexual With history of drug use by parents With history of drug use by parents With Anorexia or bulimia With Anorexia or bulimia They have been abandoned by the mother. They have been abandoned by the mother. Characteristics ………
There is a need to assume the complexity and dynamics of the problem. There is a need to assume the complexity and dynamics of the problem. They are increasing in many countries. They are increasing in many countries. Important to promote the early detection. Important to promote the early detection. Intervention according to the specifics need. Intervention according to the specifics need. Increase the number of facilities. Increase the number of facilities. Next Steps