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Accounting for Ecosystem Services under the SEEA framework Jean-Louis Weber Special Adviser on Economic-Environmental Accounting European Environment Agency.

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Presentation on theme: "Accounting for Ecosystem Services under the SEEA framework Jean-Louis Weber Special Adviser on Economic-Environmental Accounting European Environment Agency."— Presentation transcript:

1 Accounting for Ecosystem Services under the SEEA framework Jean-Louis Weber Special Adviser on Economic-Environmental Accounting European Environment Agency ProEcoServ Partnership Meeting UNEP Headquarters, Nairobi 7-8 th June 2011

2 2 The System of Economic-Environmental Accounts - SEEA The impacts of the economy on the environment and the contribution of the environment to the economy Integrates environmental and economic information to understand linkages Accounting framework brings discipline to the organisation of environmental and related data An international standard involves acceptance of the framework, wide application and ultimately improved quality and international comparability of statistics Courtesy Alessandra Alfieri

3 3 SEEA and the national accounts SEEA2003 is being elevated by the UN Statistical Commission to a standard in its own right at the par with the system of national accounts: – Part 1, the central framework: 2012 – Part 2, experimental ecosystem capital accounts: 2013 Where relevant, SEEA uses national accounting concepts and classifications Extends national accounts asset boundary Includes non-market valuations of environmental assets and flows Links monetary and physical information Enables national accounts to be adjusted for environmental depletion degradation Courtesy Alessandra Alfieri

4 4 Territory of reference Environment Natural Capital (stocks) -Land -Water -Ecosystems -Soil -Etc. Services & Resource flows -Materials -Energy -Water -Ecosystem services -Etc. Economy Activities -Production -Consumption -Accumulation Instruments -Financial/Monetary -Taxes/subsidies -Financing -Resource rent -Permits Actors -Enterprises -Households -Government -Non-profit institutions 4 The SEEA Framework Outside territory of reference Analytical and Policy Frameworks -Productivity analysis -Natural resource management -Climate change -Green Growth/Green Economy Land/ Resource use/ Ecosystems Emissions/ waste Courtesy Alessandra Alfieri

5 5 SEEA accounts and aggregates Asset accounts: record stocks and changes in stocks (flows) of natural resources such as land, forest, water and minerals Physical and hybrid flow accounts: provide a systematic physical description of production and consumption processes, including their natural resource inputs, product throughputs and outputs i.e. wastes. Link the physical information to the economic accounts Monetary accounts: separately identify environmentally- related transactions presented in the existing SNA flow accounts in order to make them more explicit for analysis Environmentally-adjusted aggregates: combine modules of SEEA to form a full-sequence of accounts from which aggregates such as Green GDP, or Net Saving can be derived. Courtesy Alessandra Alfieri

6 SEEA ecosystem accounts Ecosystem accounting discussed in several UN London Group meetings and at UNCEEA since 2005 At its fifth meeting in June 2010, the UNCEEA requested the World Bank, the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the UN Statistics Division (UNSD) to develop a broad outline and road map for a volume on ecosystem accounting in the SEEA. This partnership has made progress during the past year towards a conceptual framework for experimental ecosystem accounts in the SEEA.

7 Revision of the UN SEEA2003 includes ecosystem accounting: RM HASSAN - UN The System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (UN 2003) - RANESA Workshop June 12-16, 2005 Maputo Part1 The SNA satellite accounts for the environment expenditure, taxes, hybrid accounts, physical flows, sub-soil, energy, water land, economic assets depletion Part 2 Ecosystem approach to accounting Ecosystem stocks and quality, valuation… Revision SEEA2012/13 Negative feedbacks of ecosystem degradation on production and wellbeing Impacts on ecosystem capacity of delivering services/benefits 2

8 8 The scope of SEEA: Central framework and experimental accounts Data users ECONOMYENVIRONMENT SNA Flows within economy Changes in stocks Material inputs Returns SEEA – Central framework: A B A & B are establishments/enterprises & households Natural resources/land Courtesy Alessandra Alfieri

9 9 Two approaches in SEEA Data users ECONOMYENVIRONMENT SNA Flows within economy Changes in stocks Material inputs (provisioning services) Returns SEEA Experimental accounts – Ecosystem accounts: Ecosystem services A B A & B are establishments/enterprises & households X Y X & Y are functional units representing ecosystems in terms of capacity for ecosystem services Courtesy Alessandra Alfieri

10 Physical accounts for all ecosystems All ecosystems: – Inland systems, – Seas/oceans – Atmosphere Inland ecosystems include: – Land systems Forests (natural or managed) Other terrestrial systems (wetlands, shrubland, grassland…) Inland water systems (rivers, lakes) Agro-ecosystems Urban systems – Below-surface systems functionally related to land Soil Aquifers

11 Scales In theory, ecosystems can be described at various scales, from the global to the microscopic. SEEA is an extension of the SNA focus on the same typical scales (macro-economic accounting units): – Production units (e.g. establishments) land cover units – Institutional units (e.g companies, households or public organizations) socio-ecological systems (mapped as socio-ecological landscape units) Key geographical grouping: administrative units (countries, regions, protected areas), physical regions (river basins, mountains, coastal zones), biomes, bio-climatic zones… National accounts should be prone at being downscaled to the local level

12 Statistical units for ecosystem accounting and correspondence to SNA

13 Statistical soundness Accounts based on objective and comprehensive data – Radiometry observed by satellites – Derived land cover maps – Meteo data – Official statistics, physical (crops, timber, fish, domestic and imported…) and monetary (maintenance activities, Input-Output Tables and VA by sectors) + sampling of in situ monitoring data + physical (transparent) modeling All data documented

14 Statistical integration of SEEA Part 1 & 2 and the SNA

15 SNA & SEEA: economic and ecosystem assets

16 GDP Fossil energy Sand, gravel Water Biomass/ Carbon Metal Chemicals Landscape Water Biodiversity Atmosphere/ Climate Biomass/ Carbon Sea TEP Air TEP Sea DMC Carbon TEP Land Biomass/carbon acccounts (agriculture, forestry, …) CO2 DMC Sand/ gravel DMC Water DMC other Water accounts Conventional DMC Total Ecosystem Potential Total material Input Import-Export Decoupling (1) from material/energy inputs Decoupling (2) from environmental impacts Resource efficiency: TMI/DMC-Carbon & TEP Land

17 CICES, the draft Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services CICES, a draft classification for ecosystem services for the purpose of SEEA has been prepared and presented to the UNCEEA at its 5th meeting in CICES contains three categories of services: provisioning, regulation and maintenance, and cultural. Though there are some slight technical differences, in general CICES is derived directly from the predecessor framework of the MA and consistent with its successor in TEEB. As an additional dimension, there is a general agreement among experts to incorporate a scale attribute to this classification scheme.

18 Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (draft) CICES: Table E.2: Proposed Thematic, Class and Group Structure – source: EEA & Roy Haines-Young

19 Main relations between classifications & accounting units

20 Land use classification drafted by FAO

21 Land cover classification based on FAO LCCS3 Land Cover Types sampling mapping and derived Land Cover Functional Units

22 Land cover functional units: example of Europe

23 From land cover units to ecosystem landscape units

24 Draft classification of socio-ecological landscape units (SELU)


26 Valuation … a combination of methods is needed (with different types of services been subject to different and sometimes non-market valuation methodologies). Therefore, the proposal is to focus initially on a few key services for which reliable valuations can be produced for the purpose of regular accounts.

27 Current discussion of SEEA Part 2, ecosystem accounts UNSD, WB and EEA technical meetings in Nov. 2010, March 2011 Presentation of preliminary reflections at WAVES First partners meeting, April 2011 Expert meeting, co-organised by the EEA, UNSD and the World Bank, Copenhagen May – Discussion of concepts, accounting units and classifications – Discussion of valuation options (in relation to SNA…) Outcome of first meetings to be presented to the UNCEEA meeting, June 2011: SEEA Part II: Experimental Ecosystem Accounts: A Proposed Outline and Road Map, Paper prepared by UNSD, EEA and the World Bank Roadmap: Issue paper, peer review, new workshop in 2011, drafting, global consultation in 2012, presentation to the UN Statistical Commission of 2013 for endorsement

28 In & out of Europe: ESA, NASA,..., and the Group on Earth Observation Earth observation programmes are numerous and deliver abundant data on land over and biomass, as well as many climate change variables. In Europe, ESA and GMES are an important source of data for land & ecosystem accounting. The GlobCorine project of ESA is aimed at supporting land cover accounting GEO Biodiversity Observation Network The Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network – GEO BON – is the biodiversity arm of the Global Earth Observation System of System of Systems (GEOSS). Some 100 governmental and non-governmental organizations are collaborating through GEO BON. EO is coordinated at the global level by the GEO Secretariat in which participate 81 countries (of which 18 African countries) and the European Commission. Jean-Louis Weber, CBD Conférence, Libreville, 16 Septembre 2010

29 Out of Europe: BDOT & land cover accounts in Burkina Faso

30 © BDOT - Burkina Faso – EIONET meeting Copenhague 30-31st January GRIDCODECHANGEAREA K1000E3968N K1000E3968N K1000E3968N K1000E3968N ©BDOT2002 ©BDOT1992 ©BDOT ChangesChange Matrix LEAC Data Table (Flat matrix) ©BDOT 1992 ©BDOT 2002 Georef 1 km² Grid Raster Analysis METHODOLOGY OF LAND COVER ACCOUNT

31 © BDOT - Burkina Faso – EIONET meeting Copenhague 30-31st January 2006 ANALYSIS OF PROTECTED PERIMETERS FCForêt classée ,4 ha PNParc Naturel ,3 ha RBRéserve biologique 16969,7 ha RPFRéserve partielle de faune ,9 ha RTFRéserve totale de faune ,8 ha TOTAL (ha) ,1 ha 80 périmètres protégés qui représentent environ 15 %de la surface totale du territoire Protected forest Partial Reserve of Fauna Biological Reserve Total Nature Reserve of Fauna Natural Park 80 protected perimeters represent around 15% of the whole territory

32 © BDOT - Burkina Faso – EIONET meeting Copenhague 30-31st January 2006 The protected forest of Dida (83407,6 ha) Etat 1992 État 2002 changements Postes BDOT Dida 1992 (ha) Représentativité % 10, ,60, ,44, ,011, ,883,7 3327,70,0 5 TOTAL83407,6100,0 Postes BDOT Dida 2002 (ha) Représentativité % 100, ,78, ,326, ,211, ,454,0 3341,90,1 50,0 TOTAL83407,6100,0 Forest of Dida is subject to a strong pressure. Around 30 % of the total area was moved to agriculture area in 10 Years. That is to say a surface of ha ANALYSIS OF PROTECTED PERIMETERS

33 Out of Europa: Colombia

34 Out of Europe: test of conversion from FAO LCCS classification to EEA-CLC Jean-Louis Weber, CBD Conférence, Libreville, 16 Septembre 2010

35 Out of Europe: Senegal 2005 and change by FAO/GLCN, LCCS

36 Thank you!

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