Presentation on theme: "Humane Science and Alternatives: An American Perspective Alan M. Goldberg, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing EU."— Presentation transcript:
Humane Science and Alternatives: An American Perspective Alan M. Goldberg, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing EU presentation, July 2002
Jane Goodall, 2001 In Discussing Animal Research I believe that more and more people are becoming aware that to use animals thoughtlessly, without any anguish or making an effort to find another way diminishes us as human beings.
Underlying Principle – Good Science [B]y now it is widely recognized that the humanest possible treatment of experimental animals, far from being an obstacle [to biomedical research], is actually a prerequisite for successful animal experiments. Russell & Burch, Chapter 1 Paule Locke (8)
Acceptance of Animals in Biomedical Research Okay to use75-80% If pain part of protocol? decreases to less than 50%
Animals in Research – Comparison of U.S. and Europe United StatesEurope TrainingVariable – hours to daysWeeks AscitesLetter from NIH – but not yet10 years ago IACUCQuality of science, then pain & distress Risk vs. benefit 3Rs Intrinsic value
CAAT Refinement Program Project Grantees/Research Topics Bert van Zutphen, Utrecht University, The Netherlands –Measures to Reduce Stress Caused by Experimental Procedures Clifford Roberts, University of California, San Francisco –Differential Effects of Environmental Enrichment for Mice Alicia Z. Karas, Tufts University –Reducing Postoperative Pain and Distress in Mice Norman C. Peterson, Johns Hopkins University – Genomic Approaches to Defining Pain and Distress in Mice
Altweb The Alternatives to Animal Testing Web Site
What Is Altweb? A clearinghouse of information and news An alternatives search engine A producer of specialty databases and resources, AND A tool, to help others better develop and use alternative methods
Altweb Project Team Academia –CAA (UC-Davis) Animal welfare –ARDF (AAVS) –CLAW (MSPCA) –HSUS –ILAR (NAS) –SCAW Federal government –EPA –FDA –ICCVAM –NIH (OLAW) –NLM –USDA (APHIS & AWIC) –VA
Altweb Project Team International members –CCAC –FRAME –Lab animal unit, Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine (NORINA) –The University of Utrecht –ZEBET Industry –Procter & Gamble And, of course, CAAT
Some statistics… Currently, we get about 26,000 visitors per month From more than 70 countries Spending an average of 13 minutes on site
The Program: Chemical Knowledge NAS (1984) – 78% of HPV chemicals had less than minimal toxicology data EDF (1997) – 71% of HPV chemicals lack minimum data CMA/ACC (1997) – 20% of HPV chemicals have basic hazard data EPA (1998) – less than 10% of HPV chemicals have minimum health/ecotox data
The Problem – Animal Use HPV program Endocrine disruptors Pesticides Childrens health EU White Paper
The CAAT Response TestSmart Laboratory for Molecular Toxicogenomic and Proteomics Use archived materials from HPV testing – NTP Utilize NTP methods for extraction of mRNA Develop fundamental bioinformatics for large relational database Public accessability
Quality Science: The difference between acceptance and Implementation.
The Troubled Middle The Silent Middle
The extreme positions are minorities with views that are irreconcilably opposed. One cannot expect discussion when one see animal use as a holocaust and those that think animal use raises no moral issues. Economist, 1996
Animals in Research The issue for the public is: –Accountability –Pain and distress
Animals in Research The issues for the scientific community –Increase effectiveness of IACUCs –Further enhance standard of care –Deal with the calumny
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: Role for History Each of them necessitated the communitys rejection of one time-honored scientific theory in favor of another incompatible with it. Each produced a consequent shift in the problems available for scientific scrutiny and in the standards by which the profession determined what should count as an admissible problem or as a legitimate problem-solution.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: Role for History (cont.) And each transformed the scientific imagination in ways that we shall ultimately need to describe as a transformation of the world within which scientific work was done. Such changes, together with the controversies that almost always accompany them, are the defining characteristics of scientific revolutions.