Presentation on theme: "Dr.HuangChengwei (Director General, National Training Center for Officials in Poor Areas, China) 2011.10.13,Brussels China: Poverty Reduction Strategy."— Presentation transcript:
Dr.HuangChengwei (Director General, National Training Center for Officials in Poor Areas, China) ,Brussels China: Poverty Reduction Strategy for Block Area
1. Background 2. Why do we need Poverty Reduction Strategy for Block Area? 3. What are Poverty Reduction Strategy for Block Area? 4. What can we Learn from Wuling Mountain Area---One of Block Area? 5. How to Meet the Challenges?
1. Background ----Chinas remarkable rise since the 80s,but regional disparity becomes a major concern. ----Meanwhile, Chinas poverty reduction gets great achivements,but tasks are still extremely arduous.
Chinas focus on coastal areas in the East as the drivers of growth caused an increase of the disparities between East and West as well as urban and rural areas. Increasing inequality: GDP share of main regions in % Source: National Bureau of Statistics China
Per capita income : Source: National Bureau of Statistics China
Sources of regional disparities: Source: National Bureau of Statistics China
Striking a balance between the regions Chinas regional division (11 th FYP): Advancing the development of the Western Region: Intensification of regional cooperation. Reliance on pole cities and main transport lines as stimulators. Improvement of infrastructure (roads, railways, pipelines). Environmental protection (reforestation, watershed protection, anti-desertification). Converting resources into products. Support for modern manufacturing and high-tech industry. Improvement of public services (education, vocational training, health care) Fostering of cross-border cooperation and trade. Support the development of old revolutionary areas, ethnic minority regions and border areas: Increasing the financial transfers and fiscal investments. Protection of the environment. Improvement of infrastructure. Enhancement of compulsory schooling, nationalities higher education, pilot bilingual education. Creation of communities of traditional culture. Improvement if the HR capacities of ethnic minorities. Development of special industries, e.g. ethnic medical industry. Resolving poverty problem. Continuing policy support for Tibet and Xinjiang. Promoting the rise of the Central Region: Improvement of the level of production, relying on the current industrial basis. Advancement of industrialisation and urbanisation. Exerting the advantage of linking East and West. Increasing the investment into agricultural infrastructure. Improvement of agricultural products processing. Creation of a high-quality raw material production base. Support of the development of machinery and vehicle production. Establishment of a comprehensive transport and logistics system. Revitalizing the Northeast Regions old industrial bases: Building-up on the industrial history of the area. Advancement of structural transformation of production and SOEs. Development of modern agriculture and grain base. Establishment of modern, fine manufacturing industry. Creation of pilots for economic transformation and compensation mechanisms. Improvement of railway networks and interprovincial roads. Fostering cross-border economic cooperation. Desertification prevention. Encouraging the Eastern Region to take lead in development Increasing innovative capacity. Pioneer economic transformation/upgrading. Piloting the refining of a social market economy. Mobilisation of the Central and Western regions. Creation of intellectual property, core technologies and top brands. Development of modern manufacturing, high-tech and service industries. Enhancement of international competitiveness. Promotion of resource and land use efficiency as well as environmental protection.
China has made remarkable progress in poverty reduction measured by different poverty lines
According to the new national poverty standard, there are million poverty alleviation targets in 2010, accounting for 2.8% of the overall rural population. There will be more, if international standard is referred to. New changes of poverty distribution and difficulties facing extremely poverty-stricken regions. Natural disasters are severe, and the capacity to prevent and fight disaster is insufficient.
10 Income gap expands, and relative poverty is prominent
2.Why do we Need Poverty Reduction Strategy for Block Area? = concen- trated = closely grouped What is Block Area Development?
---Block Area In 1985: 125 million poor rural residents didnt have adequate food and clothing. Most of them lived in the 18 Block Areas in East, Central and West China, especially in old revolutionary bases, ethnic- minority, and underdeveloped areas. But no Special policy for such a big Population. RegionsBloc Areas Poor counties East232 Middle7206 West9172
Block Area In 2000: West and Center Regions cover 91% poor population and most located in 25 Block Areas. But It is Difficult to Find the Leading and coordinating Mechanism. So Targeted 150,000 Poorest Villages Source: National Bureau of Statistics China 2000 Disparities between urban and rural areas keep increasing.
---Block Area In 2011: (1)Poor Population still Concentrated on the Block Areas with some Characteristics. (2)Two-Wheels Driven Poverty Reduction: Development-oriented Poverty Alleviation and rural minimum life guarantee system. (3)Grand Poverty Reduction: the specific poverty reduction efforts, sector based poverty reduction and social participation. (4) Endeavor to Reverse the Trend of Widening Income Gap and Strive to Help Poverty Stricken Areas Enter Into the Well-off Society Together with the Rest of the Country. (5)Enough Financial Support from the Central and Local Government.
national poor counties Source: LGOP
Per capita GDP Per capita net income Per capita financial expenditure Counties in which those three figures are below certain standards will be chosen 11+3 Block Areas. Poor! Source: Wang Guoliang in Enshi meeting Selection Criterias for Block Area:
Tibetan Area Outside TAR Qinba Mountain Area Wuling Mountain Area 11 Plus 3 Block Areas: South of Xinjiang Tibetan Autonomous Region West of Yunnan Mountain Area Wumeng Mountain Area Luoxiao Mountain Area Dabie Mountain Area Lvliang Mountain Area Yan- Taihang Mountain Area Greater Hinggan Mountain Area Liupan Mountain Area Stone Desertification Area
High residual poverty Poverty counties (1994)* Richest counties (1994)* * Most recent county map not available
Ecological fragility (Ecological Function Areas)
Ecological fragility (Vulnerability)
Large minority population
Cross provincial boundaries
3.What are Poverty Reduction Strategy for Block Area? By 2020, the target groups of Poverty Alleviation will be guaranteed: Adequate food and clothing Compulsory education Basic medical care Housing Raising the growth rate of net per capita income of farmers in poor areas above the national average level Equalisation of major indicators of basic public services on rural and national average level Reversing the trend of the widening development gap A. Targeting: Outline for Poverty Alleviation and Development in China's Rural Areas ( ) Source: LGOP exhibition
B. Guidelines: Source: LGOP exhibition Targets and Scope of work Population below poverty line Bloc Areas with special difficulties Key countiesPoor villages Guidelines of Work Poverty alleviation through development Social security, provision of basic clothing and food Basic Principles Government led & multi-level governance Defining priorities & specific guidance Coordination & cooperation between ministries & departments Self-reliance & hard work Social support & common prosperity Holistic approach & scientific development Reform, innovation & increasing openness Major Intervention Areas Basic farmland and irrigation Industries with specialised local products Drinking water safetyElectricityTraffic Renovation of houses in poor conditions EducationHealthcarePublic cultureSocial security Population and family planning Forestry and ecology
Map of Concentrated Zones of Poverty with Special Characteristics (14)
Regional Development Reducing regional disparity, supporting structurally weak areas Narrowing the rural-urban income gap Rational division of economic and ecological functions Ensuring strategic land use and gradual urbanisation Achieving economic transition and sustainable growth Poverty Alleviation Eradicating absolute poverty by 2020 Reducing relative poverty, improving the livelihoods of the rural population Per capita income of poor areas growing faster than national average Raising standards of public services in poor areas to the national average Reverse trend of widening income gaps Block Area Development C. Combine Regional Development and Poverty Reduction in Block Areas:
State Development Strategy: More Fund, Special Policy, etc. Plan for Block Area: Approved by State Council, Developed by NDRC and LGOP. Coordinating by LGOP. Province Takes all Responsibilities for its Block Area Poverty Reduction. County Response for Implementation. Target Group Participatory. D. Plan, Implementation and Management:
4.What can we Learn from Wuling Mountain Area---One of Block Area? (Based on the Poverty Reduction Strategy Study on WuLing Mountain Area,Co-organized by LGOP and GIZ) ----Location and borders counties Square Kilometers M, Population,(37.92M in Rural)
Topographic situation Average altitude: ~ m Source: Baseline Study on Poverty Alleviation in Wuling Mountain Area
Ethnic background Source: Baseline Study on Poverty Alleviation in Wuling Mountain Area ~84.3% ethnic minorities
Level of education Source: Baseline Study on Poverty Alleviation in Wuling Mountain Area
Per capita GDP (2009) Source: Baseline Study on Poverty Alleviation in Wuling Mountain Area
Poverty incidence rate (2009) Source: Baseline Study on Poverty Alleviation in Wuling Mountain Area
Challenges Fragile ecological environment Lack of land resources Remoteness, weak infrastructure Weak economic basis Lack of public facilities and services Lack of human resources Lack of investment and financial transfers
5.How to Meet the Challenges? Coordination on Central Government level. Multi-level and cross-border governance. Special Fund, Policy, Mechanism. Knowledge, Human Resources and Capacity Development. Participatory. Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting. International Cooperation.