Presentation on theme: "Enabling Environment for Sanitation in South Africa"— Presentation transcript:
1Enabling Environment for Sanitation in South Africa Jean de la Harpe
2What’s this presentation about? Enabling environment for sanitation in South Africa5 main pillarsConstitutional, policy and legislative frameworkInstitutional frameworkSector collaboration and supportFinancial frameworkMonitoring and regulationChallenges
3Do we have an enabling environment? Police brought in to manage community protest over poor services in the Western Cape
4South Africa’s poor renew a tradition of protest Protesters chant slogans in the township of Siyathemba. Such “service delivery protests” have become a regular occurrence in South Africa
5Enabling environment Constitutional, policy and legislative framework for sanitation
6Constitutional context Local Government Information Dissemination WorkshopConstitutional contextAccess to water and sanitation services are a basic human right“The state must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of each of these rights”Water and sanitation services is assigned to local governmentNational government is responsible for regulating the performance of local government in terms of water and sanitation services – it also is obliged to support and strengthen the capacity of local government to provide these servicesThe Constitution contains strong elements of decentralisation and the need for co-operative governance.Water Services Authority Role and Responsibilities
7Policy and Legislative Framework Local Government Information Dissemination WorkshopPolicy and Legislative FrameworkGiven the inequalities and failures of the apartheid government policy, new approaches were required to provide sustainable services and to dramatically increase service provision coverageThe 1994 Water Services White Paper set out policy for the water and sanitation services function and addressed issues of equity – some for all for everThe Water Services Act was promulgated in 1997 and defined the municipal functions of water and sanitationFrom 1998 to 2000, local government policy and legislation were finalised to pave the way for ‘developmental’ local governmentIn 2003 a Strategic Framework for water and sanitation was developed, providing a comprehensive approach to the provision of water and sanitation services – building on progress made towards establishing democratic local government and developments in the sector.Water Services Authority Role and Responsibilities
8The Water Services Act, 1997 – some key points Local Government Information Dissemination WorkshopThe Water Services Act, 1997 – some key pointsProvides a flexible, developmental legislative framework for the provision of water and sanitation servicesPromotes and aims to strengthen local governmentCreates mechanisms for monitoring local government, by consumers, and provincial and national governmentSets national norms and standards and requires water services development planningDistinguishes between the authority function (governance) and the service provision functionEstablishes statutory bodies to support and assist local government and provides for the monitoring and regulation of these bodies.Water Services Authority Role and Responsibilities
9Local Government Information Dissemination Workshop DecentralisationOur Constitution, our local government legislation and our water services legislation creates a legal framework where service provision is decentralised to local governmentIncreasingly our institutional, planning, financial, support and regulatory frameworks are structured towards decentralization.Local authorities receive financial support from the National Treasury in terms of capital grants for infrastructure, operating grants for free basic services, as well as capacity building grants to improve performance.The Strategic Framework for Water Services provides an institutional vision that reinforces the executive authority of local authorities for water and sanitation services..Water Services Authority Role and Responsibilities
10The South African water and sanitation policy provides: a 10 year vision for the sectorthe objectives and targets to be achieved within the sectorthe institutional, financial, regulatory, support and monitoring frameworks for the sectorclarity on the roles and responsibilities of sector players
11The policy:Is a comprehensive approach to the provision of water supply and sanitationIt sets out an umbrella framework to enable the sector vision to be achievedIt provides a clear set of targets with timeframes and who is responsible for achieving these targetsIt clarifies institutional roles and responsibilities in the sector
12Targets for sanitation All people in South Africa have access to a functioning basic sanitation facility by 2010.All bucket toilets are eradicated by 2006.Investment in water & sanitation infrastructure in the sector totals least 0.75% of GDP.70% of households with access to at least a basic sanitation facility know how to practise safe sanitation by 2005 (and 100% by 2010).Free basic sanitation policy implemented in all water services authorities by 2010By-laws are promulgated in every water services authority area by 2005.All water services authorities report annually on progress against their water and sanitation services development plans by 2005All services providers are rendering services in terms of a contract by 2005
13Free basic sanitation policy Purpose: to assist in promoting affordable access by poor households to at least a basic level of sanitation serviceThe challenges of providing free basic sanitation are threefold:Infrastructure provision. provision of the sanitation facility to poor households (together with the necessary supporting infrastructure)Health and hygiene promotion must be provided and properly managed between the municipality responsible for environmental health, the water services authority and the water services provider.Subsidising the operating and maintenance costs for the poor using the equitable share and/or through cross-subsidies within the water services authority area. These funds must be paid to the water services provider or directly to the households.
14Free basic sanitation policy – choice of technology The policy does not define the technology to be used in providing free basic sanitationTechnology selection is strongly dependent on settlement conditions (urban, rural, peri-urban, density, financial viability, existence of a WSP to ensure sustainable operation) and thus this is the decision of the WSA – and is key to providing free basic sanitation services in a sustainable mannerOperating the service. In rural areas households need to manage the sanitation facilities themselves as WSPs operating in these areas lack the capacity to empty or relocate Ventilated Improved Pit toilets (VIPs). Subsidy arrangements therefore take these factors into account.In urban areas, where many businesses are located and where residential densities are high, waterborne sanitation is generally the most appropriate technical solution and should be regarded as a basic level of service for the purposes of the free basic sanitation policy.In rural areas, where housing densities are low and few businesses are located, on-site technical solutions are an appropriate basic level of service (see box on page 47).In intermediate areas (for example, peri-urban areas or rural areas where settlement densities are high), a water services authority must decide on an appropriate technology which is financially viable and sustainable. In most instances, on-site sanitation systems are likely to be the most appropriate solution. Care must be exercised when choosing waterborne sanitation systems in this context. The water services authority must ensure that the water services provider will be able to maintain and operate this system sustainably over time with the available funds.
15Free Basic Sanitation Policy Subsidies for free basic sanitation cover hygiene promotion costs and operating costs (calculated per household per month for each settlement type and technology used)This subsidy is paid to the WSP or directly to the household.WSAs decide appropriate technical solutions based on the level of subsidy (overall) they can provide on an ongoing and sustainable basis for sanitation (from equitable share and cross-subsidies)The policy recognises that local circumstances vary greatly between WSA areas – thus the application of the free basic sanitation policy by WSAs is be flexible.
16Basic services – first step WSAs have to ensure the progressive realisation of the right of all people in its area of jurisdiction to receive at least a basic level of sanitation services (first step)They must ensure adequate and sustainable investments in sanitation services infrastructure to realise this rightThe municipal infrastructure grant (MIG) is to ensure universal provision of at least a basic sanitation facility within a reasonable period of time. This is called a universal service obligation and is the most important policy priority.
18Institutional framework water and sanitation Responsibility. Water services providers are the organisations that assume operational responsibility for providing water and/or sanitation services. (Where water services authorities undertake any of these services themselves, they are a water services provider.)Contract with water services authorities. All water services providers who provide water services to or on behalf of water services authorities must do so in terms of a service delivery agreement (contract) with the water services authority.Contracts for bulk services. Where water services providers purchase water from, sell water to, or accept wastewater from, another institution, this must be done in terms of a contract.Water resource supply contracts. Where water services providers purchase raw water, this must be done in terms of a contract.Local water services providers are water services providers who provide water services to (or on behalf of) only one water services authority. Local water services providers could provide bulk and/or retail water services.Regional water services providers are water services providers who operate regional infrastructure (crossing water services authority boundaries) and provide water services to (or on behalf of) more than one water services authority.Consumer charter. Where water services providers provide retail services to consumers, they must do so in terms of a consumer charter and consumer contracts.
19Local government is the responsible authority Local Government Information Dissemination WorkshopLocal government is the responsible authoritySince water and sanitation services are the responsibility of local government, the municipality is the water services authorityThis means it has executive responsibility forensuring accesswater services development planningmaking bylaws and regulatingfulfilling the provider functions itself or entering into a contract / partnership with a water services providerThe water services authority is thus responsible for all the governance functions and it cannot delegate this responsibility to any other entity.Water Services Authority Role and Responsibilities
20Service provision options Local Government Information Dissemination WorkshopService provision optionsThe Water Services Act and the Local Government Systems Act recognise that a municipality might not have the necessary capacity to provide the service to consumersTherefore the authority can contract a service provider to fulfill the actual provision of services, including operations and maintenance, customer relations, revenue collection, administrative and financial managementA service provider can be:Another municipalityA water boardA private entityA public entityA community based organisation.Water Services Authority Role and Responsibilities
21Partnerships for provision Local Government Information Dissemination WorkshopPartnerships for provisionOne of the key reasons for differentiating between the authority and the provider functions was to promote partnerships between authorities and providersAnother reason was to ensure good governance through promoting the role of the authorityWSAWSPContractWSA - WSP.WSA = municipality who contracts a water services providerWater Services Authority Role and Responsibilities
22Enabling Environment Sector collaboration and coordination
23Sector collaborationA major part of the enabling environment for water and sanitation in South Africa is the sector wide approach (SWAp) called Masibambane – meaning let’s work togetherPurpose: to strengthen the water services sector; to support local government; to improve the quality of life of poor communities by improving their access to basic water supply and sanitation servicesIt is sector support programme led by the Department of Water Affairs and involving all players in the water sectorCollaborative structures were established at national and provincial level and in some cases at local level as wellA strong culture of consultation and finding consensus developed in the sector. Sector collaboration is the hallmark of Masibambane
24The SWAp The SWAp started in 2001 for a 3 year period as a pilot It focused on providing support to water and sanitation services only (i.e. not water resources)It targeted national and three of the nine provincesIn 2004 it expanded to the entire countryIn 2007 it expanded further to include water resourcesThe move towards a full sector wide approach in the sector was therefore incremental (not the entire country and not the entire water sector to start off with)The original budget was Euro 334 million – the final budget was Euro 4145 (with 82% from SA government and 18% provided by donors)
25Main achievements of the SWAp Local Government Information Dissemination WorkshopMain achievements of the SWApStrategic Framework for Water and Sanitation approved by CabinetNational sanitation policy finalised and approved by cabinetJoint policy on transfer of water and sanitation services finalised and implementedNational water and sanitation sector leadership group establishedProvincial Sector Forums established in each regionSector-wide concept rolled out to other provincesNearly 3 Million people served with water infrastructure1 Million people served with sanitation infrastructureSingle planning, monitoring and reporting systems established through the spheres of governmentWater Services Authority Role and Responsibilities
26AchievementsJoint support strategy developed and implemented across the sectorImproved water and sanitation governance at the local levelGreater collaboration as a single sector with co-ordination and joint decision making at national and provincial levelIncreased access to technical expertiseGender, appropriate technology, HIV/AIDS, the environment and civil society are addressed as part of service delivery from planning to service provisionWater and sanitation plans are developed at local, provincial and national levelBudgets and implementation plans are aligned to the policy objectives and targets
27Local Government Information Dissemination Workshop Some areas of concernSustainability of services, particularly operations and maintenanceSuccess in decentralisation in some areas but not othersVery time consuming getting all stakeholders on boardVarying success with regards to efficiency and effectivenessQuality of sanitation servicesMonitoring systemDependency on consulting supportSustainability of the programme itself (dependent upon high level of political support – which changes over time)Water Services Authority Role and Responsibilities
29Financial FrameworkSanitation policies, targets and ongoing services are supported by the financial framework where:The Municipal Infrastructure Grant (MIG) subsidises sanitation infrastructure for the poorThe Equitable Share (ES) subsidises the operation and maintenance costs of sanitation services for the poor (free basic sanitation services)The Local Government Capacity Support Grant provides institutional support to municipalities to fulfil both their authority and provider functionsFinancial support is also provided against municipal action plans from Masibambane to ensure access to technical support and training
31Regulatory framework – local regulation Local regulation. The water services authority (municipality) is the local regulator of water services. It determines local policies and standards (which must conform to national minimum norms and standards), promulgates by-laws, plans the provision of water services (water services development plan), determines how investments in water services are undertaken and sets tariffs. Where the water services authority is also the water services provider, there is self-regulation. The accountability of the water services authority to the local electorate is an effective regulating mechanism for the provision of water services in this context.Regulation by contract. Where water services are provided by an external water services provider, the water services authority regulates the provision of services by means of a contract (service delivery agreement).
32Regulation is a key part of the enabling environment Water Safety PlanProcess Controllers and SupervisorsDWQ Monitoring ProgrammeDWQ Sample AnalysisSubmission of DWQ ResultsDWQ ComplianceManagement of DWQ FailuresPublication of DWQ PerformanceDrinking Water Asset Management
33Drinking water quality and waste water management certification WSA’s receive Blue Drop Status (Drinking Water Quality) or Green Drop Status (Waste Water Management) if they comply with legislation and best practice requirementsThe onus is on WSAs to provide DWA with informationIncentive systemBlue drop or Green drop status provides citizen’s with information on the confidence the Department of Water Affairs has in the WSA to manage drinking water quality and waste water servicesIncreasingly comprehensive and stringent criteria will be introduced to facilitate a phased, continuous improvement approach
36Main reason for providing toilets is about dignity ………… Makhaza Toilets: An Affront To Human Dignity and a Threat to Safety & Security
37Western Cape ‘toilet wars’ escalate with more mudslingin • 30 June 2010, 17:58:41 (South Africa)
38PROJECT POO Getting it right … …. understanding the relationship between people and the toilet
39“Flies and maggots are making my life a misery” “The smell is bad and it looks bad.”“The toilets are not private enough. Doors break easily, people steal them and thugs hide inside because they do not lock.”“It is too dark.”“My dignity is compromised.”“Toilets are too close to the house. We cannot cook freely and maggots creep inside.”“Toilets fill too quickly. There are no chemicals to make them empty.”“They don’t flush!”
40The toilet, as a space, means many things to many people: Freedom, comfort, relaxation, smoking and just being oneselfPrivate space to be alone with thoughtsPrevents the spread of disease and is critical for societyPrayer, meditation, reflection, being at peace with yourselfIt is about escaping for a quiet moment to read or dreamDodging employer, parent, teacher, guardian…Represents your right to life and ensures personal dignity and pride
41Based on the research …Ethekwini made fundamental changes to their sanitation programmeShifted to urine diversionOvercame the pit emptying problems association with VIPUndertook awareness programmes on the benefits of the UD technology and gained community buy in75% to 89% are now managing to empty the toilets themselves and have taken ownership of the toilets….toilets are about dignity, status and privacy. They play a critical role - for example praying, resting, reading, relaxing, and enjoying time aloneSuccess was about understanding this relationship, reaching the community, determining what needed to be communicated, and how best this should be done, as well as and follow up
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